Active Driver or Passive Victim - On the Role of International Monetary Policy Transmission ...
14.12.2021 • 29/2021
German economy not yet immune to COVID 19 ‒ outlook clouded again
The current pandemic wave and supply bottlenecks cause the German economy to stagnate in winter. When infection rates go down in spring, private consumption will increase significantly. In addition, supply restrictions will be gradually reduced. As a result, the economy will regain momentum. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that German gross domestic product will increase by 3.5% (East Germany: 2.7%) in 2022, after 2.7% (East Germany: 2.1%) in the current year. Inflation is expected to decline only slowly.
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Investment, output gap, and public finances in the medium term: Implications of the Second Supplementary Budget 2021
Andrej Drygalla, Katja Heinisch, Oliver Holtemöller, Axel Lindner, Götz Zeddies
Die Bundesregierung plant, mit dem Zweiten Nachtragshaushalt 2021 dem Energie- und Klimafonds eine Rücklage in Höhe von 60 Mrd. Euro zuzuführen. Die Mittel sollen in den Folgejahren in Investitionen in den Klimaschutz und die Transformation der Wirtschaft fließen und zugleich gesamtwirtschaftliche Folgekosten der Pandemie verringern. Diese pandemiebedingten Einbußen sind auch in der mittleren Frist erheblich. Zwar dürften Nachholeffekte beim privaten Konsum die im Jahr 2021 noch deutliche Unterauslastung bis zum Jahr 2024 vollständig verschwinden lassen. Jedoch liegt das Produktionspotenzial in den kommenden Jahren mehr als 1,5% unter dem Ende 2019 vom IWH prognostizierten Wert, vor allem wegen eines geringeren Arbeitsangebots, unter anderem aufgrund deutlich niedrigerer Zuwanderung von Arbeitskräften. Die Investitionen sind gemäß aktueller Mittelfristprojektion im Jahr 2024 ebenfalls noch deutlich niedriger. Die Effekte des Nachtragshaushalts auf Investitionstätigkeit und Produktion lassen sich mit Hilfe des finanzpolitischen Simulationsmodells des IWH abschätzen. Die beabsichtigten Mehrausgaben dürften auf dem Höhepunkt ihrer Wirksamkeit im Jahr 2024 die gesamtwirtschaftliche Aktivität um etwa 0,5% steigern. Allerdings werden die zusätzlichen Investitionen die seit Pandemiebeginn ausgebliebene Investitionstätigkeit bei Weitem nicht kompensieren können. Eine Bewertung des Nachtragshaushals hat die positiven gesamtwirtschaftlichen Effekte zusätzlicher Investitionen und die negativen Effekte auf die Glaubwürdigkeit der Schuldenbremse gegeneinander abzuwägen.
COVID-19 Financial Aid and Productivity: Has Support Been Well Spent?
Carlo Altomonte, Maria Demertzis, Lionel Fontagné, Steffen Müller
Most European Union countries have made good progress with vaccinating their populations against COVID-19 and are now seeing a rebound in economic activity. While the scarring effects of the crisis and the long-term implications of the pandemic are only partially understood, the effects of support given to firms can be evaluated in order to help plan the removal of crisis support. An analysis of France, Germany and Italy shows the potential for ‘cleansing effects’ in that it was the least-productive firms that have been affected most by the crisis. While support was generally not targeted at protecting good firms only, financial support went by and large to those with the capacity to survive and succeed. Labour schemes have been effective in protecting employment.
Bank Concentration and Product Market Competition
Farzad Saidi, Daniel Streitz
Review of Financial Studies,
This paper documents a link between bank concentration and markups in nonfinancial sectors. We exploit concentration-increasing bank mergers and variation in banks’ market shares across industries and show that higher credit concentration is associated with higher markups and that high-market-share lenders charge lower loan rates. We argue that this is due to the greater incidence of competing firms sharing common lenders that induce less aggressive product market behavior among their borrowers, thereby internalizing potential adverse effects of higher rates. Consistent with our conjecture, the effect is stronger in industries with competition in strategic substitutes where negative product market externalities are greatest.
14.09.2021 • 23/2021
Production bottlenecks delay recovery
The German recovery made good progress over the summer 2021. However, bottlenecks in sea transport and the production of intermediate goods are weighing on world trade. The rise in raw material prices has prompted inflation rates to spike, and an increase in new infections is clouding the outlook again. A weak final quarter is therefore to be expected. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that German gross domestic product (GDP) will increase by 2.2% in 2021 and 3.6% in 2022 (East Germany: 1.8% and 2.8%).
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15.06.2021 • 16/2021
Increase in personal contacts spurs economic activity
This summer the economic outlook in Germany is bright. As the pandemic is in retreat, the restrictions that have hampered many service activities are likely to be gradually lifted, and a strong boost in private purchases can be expected. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that gross domestic product will increase by 3.9% in 2021 and by 4.0% in 2022. Production in East Germany is expected to increase by 3% in both years, respectively.
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15.04.2021 • 11/2021
Pandemic delays upswing – Demography slows growth
In their spring report, the leading economic research institutes forecast an increase in gross domestic product of 3.7% in the current year and 3.9% in 2022. The renewed shutdown is delaying the economic recovery, but as soon as the risks of infection, particularly from vaccination, have been averted, a strong recovery will begin. The economy is likely to return to normal output levels around the start of the coming year.
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Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century
Carol Corrado, Jonathan Haskel, Javier Miranda, Daniel Sichel
NBER Studies in Income and Wealth,
Measuring innovation is challenging both for researchers and for national statisticians, and it is increasingly important in light of the ongoing digital revolution. National accounts and many other economic statistics were designed before the emergence of the digital economy and the growing importance of intangible capital. They do not yet fully capture the wide range of innovative activity that is observed in modern economies.
This volume examines how to measure innovation, track its effects on economic activity and prices, and understand how it has changed the structure of production processes, labor markets, and organizational form and operation in business. The contributors explore new approaches to, and data sources for, measurement—such as collecting data for a particular innovation as opposed to a firm, and the use of trademarks for tracking innovation. They also consider the connections between university-based R&D and business startups, and the potential impacts of innovation on income distribution.
The research suggests potential strategies for expanding current measurement frameworks to better capture innovative activity, such as more detailed tracking of global value chains to identify innovation across time and space, and expanding the measurement of the GDP impacts of innovation in fields such as consumer content delivery and cloud computing.