IWH FDI Micro Database
IWH FDI Micro Database The IWH FDI Micro Database (FDI = Foreign Direct...
11.02.2019 • 3/2019
No-deal Brexit would hit the German labour market particularly hard
The United Kingdom leaving the European Union without a deal would have consequences for international trade and labour markets in many countries, including outside Europe. Calculations by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) indicate: More than 600,000 jobs may be affected worldwide, but nowhere as many as in Germany.
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18.12.2018 • 22/2018
IWH leads large scale EU research project on productivity
Is productivity growth slowing in industrialised countries? And if so, why? From the start of 2019, the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) will be addressing these questions as the coordinator of a new EU project. Economists and statistics experts from nine European partners will collaborate on the three-year project, entitled MICROPROD. With a total budget of just under three million euros, it is the IWH’s largest EU project to date.
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Reports of the European Forecasting Network (EFN)
Reports of the European Forecasting Network (EFN) The European Forecasting...
Suppliers as Liquidity Insurers
IWH Discussion Papers,
We examine how financial constraints in portfolios of suppliers affect cash holdings at the level of the customer. Utilizing a data set of private and public French companies and their suppliers, we show that customers rely on their financially unconstrained suppliers to provide them with backup liquidity, and that they stockpile approximately 10% less cash than customers with constrained suppliers. This effect persisted during the global financial crisis, highlighting that suppliers may be viable insurers of liquidity even when financing from banks and other external channels is unavailable. We further show that customers with unconstrained suppliers also simultaneously receive more trade credit; that the reduction in cash holdings is greater for firms with stronger ties to their unconstrained suppliers; and that customers reduce their cash holdings following a significant relaxation in their suppliers’ financial constraints through an IPO. Taken together, the results provide important nuance regarding the implications of supplier portfolios and financial constraints on firm liquidity management.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Economic Sanctions between the EU and Russia on Output and Employment in the German Economy
Followed by the escalation of the Ukraine conflict in 2014, the European Union and Russia introduced bilateral economic sanctions which accelerated an already existing decline of the German exports to Russia. The article focuses on the effects of the losses in exports to Russia on production and employment in Germany. The analysis makes use of an input-output approach capturing direct as well as indirect effects throughout the supply chain. The results calculated on the base of the actual Input-Output Table for Germany exhibit a cumulated loss in GDP of 0.15% due to sanctions in the years 2014 to 2016. Especially export-oriented German sectors with strong backward linkages, such as motor vehicles and machinery, are affected.
Do Manufacturing Firms Benefit from Services FDI? – Evidence from Six New EU Member States
IWH Discussion Papers,
This paper focuses on the effect of foreign presence in the services sector on the productivity growth of downstream customers in the manufacturing sector in six EU new member countries in the course of their accession to the European Union. For this purpose, the analysis combines firm-level information, data on economic structures and annual national input-output tables. The findings suggest that services FDI may enhance productivity of manufacturing firms in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries through vertical forward spillovers, and thereby contribute to their competitiveness. The consideration of firm characteristics shows that the magnitude of spillover effects depends on size, ownership structure, and initial productivity level of downstream firms as well as on the diverging technological intensity across sector on the supply and demand side. The results suggest that services FDI foster productivity of domestic rather than foreign controlled firms in the host economy. For the period between 2003 and 2008, the findings suggest that the increasing share of services provided by foreign affiliates enhanced the productivity growth of domestic firms in manufacturing by 0.16%. Furthermore, the firms’ absorptive capability and the size reduce the spillover effect of services FDI on the productivity of manufacturing firms. A sectoral distinction shows that firms at the end of the value chain experience a larger productivity growth through services FDI, whereas the aggregate positive effect seems to be driven by FDI in energy supply. This does not hold for science-based industries, which are spurred by foreign presence in knowledge-intensive business services.
Payment Defaults and Interfirm Liquidity Provision
Review of Finance,
Using a unique data set on French firms, we show that credit constrained firms that face liquidity shocks are more likely to default on their payments to suppliers. Credit constrained firms pass on a sizeable fraction of such shocks to their suppliers. This is consistent with the idea that firms provide liquidity insurance to each other and that this mechanism is able to alleviate credit constraints. We show that the chain of defaults stops when it reaches unconstrained firms. Liquidity appears to be allocated from firms with access to outside finance to credit constrained firms along supply chains.
Subsidiary Roles, Vertical Linkages and Economic Development: Lessons from Transition Economies
Journal of World Business,
Vertical supply chain linkages between foreign subsidiaries and domestic ?rms are important mechanisms for knowledge spillovers, contributing to the economic development of host economies. This paper argues that subsidiary roles and technological competences affect the extent of vertical linkages as such as well as their potential for technological spillovers. Using survey evidence from 424 foreign subsidiaries based in transition economies, we tested for the effect of subsidiaries’ autonomy, initiative, technological capability, internal and external technological embeddedness on the extent and intensity of forward and backward vertical linkages. The evidence supports our main argument that the potential of technology diffusion via vertical linkages depends on the nature of subsidiary roles. We discuss the implications for transition as well as other developing countries.