09.07.2019 • 17/2019
IWH rated "very good" and recommended for further funding
The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association has been providing remarkable research and policy advice services for many years and should therefore continue to receive joint basic funding by Federal government and the Länder in future. This was the conclusion of today's meeting of the Senate of the Leibniz Association. At the end of the evaluation, the Institute was rated "very good" in all areas.
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IWH Alumni The IWH would like to stay in contact with its former employees. We...
On Mitra's Sufficient Condition for Topological Chaos: Seventeen Years Later
This letter reports an easy extension of Mitra’s “easily verifiable” sufficient condition for topological chaos in unimodal maps, and offers its application to reduced-form representations of two economic models that have figured prominently in the recent literature in economic dynamics: the check- and the M-map pertaining to the 2-sector Robinson–Solow–Srinivasan (RSS) and Matsuyama models respectively. A consideration of the iterates of these maps establishes the complementarity of the useful 2001 condition with the 1982 (LMPY) theorem of Li–Misiurewicz–Pianigiani–Yorke when supplemented by a geometric construction elaborated in Khan–Piazza (2011).
Predicting Earnings and Cash Flows: The Information Content of Losses and Tax Loss Carryforwards
IWH Discussion Papers,
We analyse the relevance of losses, accounting information on tax loss carryforwards, and deferred taxes for the prediction of earnings and cash flows up to four years ahead. We use a unique hand-collected panel of German listed firms encompassing detailed information on tax loss carryforwards and deferred taxes from the tax footnote. Our out-of-sample predictions show that considering accounting information on tax loss carryforwards and deferred taxes does not enhance the accuracy of performance forecasts and can even worsen performance predictions. We find that common forecasting approaches that treat positive and negative performances equally or that use a dummy variable for negative performance can lead to biased performance forecasts, and we provide a simple empirical specification to account for that issue.
TV and Entrepreneurship
IWH Discussion Papers,
We empirically analyse whether television (TV) can influence entrepreneurial identity and incidence. To identify causal effects, we utilise a quasi-natural experiment setting. During the division of Germany after WWII into West Germany with a free-market economy and the socialistic East Germany with centrally-planned economy, some East German regions had access to West German public TV that – differently from the East German TV – transmitted images, values, attitudes and view of life compatible with the free-market economy principles and supportive of entrepreneurship. We show that during the 40 years of socialistic regime in East Germany entrepreneurship was highly regulated and virtually impossible and that the prevalent formal and informal institutions broke the traditional ties linking entrepreneurship to the characteristics of individuals so that there were hardly any differences in the levels and development of entrepreneurship between East German regions with and without West German TV signal. Using both, regional and individual level data, we show then that, for the period after the Unification in 1990 which made starting an own business in East Germany, possible again, entrepreneurship incidence is higher among the residents of East German regions that had access to West German public TV, indicating that TV can, while transmitting specific images, values, attitudes and view of life, directly impact on the entrepreneurial mindset of individuals. Moreover, we find that young individuals born after 1980 in East German households that had access to West German TV are also more entrepreneurial. These findings point to second-order effects due to inter-personal and inter-generational transmission, a mechanism that can cause persistent differences in the entrepreneurship incidence across (geographically defined) population groups.
Does Social Capital Matter in Corporate Decisions? Evidence from Corporate Tax Avoidance
Journal of Accounting Research,
We investigate whether the levels of social capital in U.S. counties, as captured by strength of civic norms and density of social networks in the counties, are systematically related to tax avoidance activities of corporations with headquarters located in the counties. We find strong negative associations between social capital and corporate tax avoidance, as captured by effective tax rates and book-tax differences. These results are incremental to the effects of local religiosity and firm culture toward socially irresponsible activities. They are robust to using organ donation as an alternative social capital proxy and fixed effect regressions. They extend to aggressive tax avoidance practices. Additionally, we provide corroborating evidence using firms with headquarters relocation that changes the exposure to social capital. We conclude that social capital surrounding corporate headquarters provides environmental influences constraining corporate tax avoidance.
Eigenkapitalausstattung in den Neuen Ländern teilweise höher als in Westdeutschland
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Um der ostdeutschen Wirtschaft nach den Anfang der 1990er Jahre erlittenen Transformationsschocks wieder auf die Beine zu helfen, wurde der Unternehmenssektor in den Neuen Ländern durch vielfältige Förderinstrumente
unterstützt. Begründet wurden diese Eingriffe unter anderem damit, dass die ostdeutschen Unternehmen – insbesondere im Mittelstand – nicht in der Lage waren, die Wiederherstellung ihres Kapitals und ihrer Wettbewerbsfähigkeit aus eigener Kraft zu stemmen – da sie wohl auch nur über sehr wenig Eigenkapital verfügten. Empirische Analysen finden heute keine Belege mehr für eine allgemeine Eigenkapitalschwäche bei den ostdeutschen Unternehmen im Mittelstand. Ganz im Gegenteil, die Eigenkapitalausstattung der kapitalintensiv produzierenden mittelständischen Industrieunternehmen ist dort sogar höher als in Westdeutschland. Dieser grundlegende Befund wird bestätigt durch die Analyse auf der Ebene der Länder, die in diesem Beitrag – unter Anwendung eines exklusiven Datensatzes des Deutschen Sparkassen- und Giroverbandes – erstmalig präsentiert wird. Hier zeigt sich, dass insbesondere die Unternehmen des Verarbeitenden Gewerbes in Thüringen und Sachsen sehr hohe Eigenkapitalquoten aufweisen. Vorsichtige Hinweise auf Lücken in der Eigenkapitalausstattung lassen sich allenfalls in ausgewählten Branchen des Verarbeitenden Gewerbes und nur in bestimmten Regionen finden, beispielsweise im Maschinenbau des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt.