Dr Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch

Current Position

since 1/93

Economist in the Department of Macroeconomics

Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association

Research Interests

  • analysis and forecasting of the labour market in Germany and in its Eastern Region
  • input-output analysis
  • macroeconometric model

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch joined the institute in 1993. His research focuses on the analysis and forecast of the labour market development.

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch earned a diploma and doctoral degree from Higher School of Economics in Berlin.

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Dr Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch
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Publications

Recent Publications

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Die veränderten Wettbewerbsbedingungen von Nordrhein-Westfalen durch ein verändertes ‚level-playing-field‘ in den Wirtschaftsbeziehungen zum Vereinigten Königreich und Nordirland

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Andrej Drygalla Oliver Holtemöller Martina Kämpfe Axel Lindner

in: IWH Studies, No. 1, 2021

Abstract

Am 31.01.2020 ist das Vereinigte Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland (Großbritannien) aus der Europäischen Union (EU) ausgetreten. Das Land ist bisher als Handelspartner der nordrhein-westfälischen Wirtschaft von erheblicher Bedeutung gewesen: 2015, im Jahr vor dem britischen Volksentscheid zugunsten eines Austritts, war es mit einem Anteil von 7,7% der drittwichtigste Absatzmarkt für Warenexporte aus Nordrhein-Westfalen, und immerhin 4,6% aller Warenimporte stammten aus Großbritannien. In der vorliegenden Studie werden die Konsequenzen des Brexit für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen erörtert. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der kurzen bis mittleren Frist, denn das zentrale Instrument der Analyse, die Input-Output-Rechnung, nutzt Informationen über gegenwärtige Wirtschaftsstrukturen, die sich an die nach dem Austritt Großbritanniens neuen Rahmenbedingungen im Lauf der Zeit anpassen werden. Die Perspektiven für die wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen Großbritannien und der EU, wie sie sich im Frühjahr 2020 darstellen, werden am Anfang der Studie (Abschnitt 2) skizziert. Daran schließt sich ein Überblick der Literatur zu den wirtschaftlichen Folgen des Brexit für Europa, für Deutschland und für einzelne Regionen an (Abschnitt 3). Das zentrale Kapitel der Studie (Abschnitt 4) beleuchtet die Effekte des Brexit auf die Wirtschaft Nordrhein-Westfalens. Dabei geht es vor allem um den Güterhandel, die Produktion und die Beschäftigung, aber auch um Effekte auf Investitionen und Arbeitsproduktivität. Um auch wichtige indirekte Effekte über Vorleistungsbeziehungen zu erfassen, kommt die Input-Output-Analyse zum Einsatz. Nach einer kurzen Darstellung der Wirtschaftsstruktur Nordrhein-Westfalens und der Handelsverflechtungen zwischen Großbritannien, Deutschland und der EU werden die kurz- bis mittelfristigen Effekte des Brexit auf den Güterhandel, die Produktion und die Beschäftigung in Deutschland und in neun nordrhein-westfälischen Regionen simuliert. An die so erzielten Ergebnisse schließen sich qualitative Überlegungen zu den Effekten auf Investitionstätigkeit und Produktivitätsentwicklung an. In Abschnitt 5 wird diskutiert, ob sich mit dem Brexit nicht auch Chancen für die Wirtschaft Nordrhein-Westfalens bieten. Zu diesem Zweck wird untersucht, in welchen Branchen sowohl Großbritannien als auch Nordrhein-Westfalen bisher innerhalb der EU komparative Vorteile gehabt haben, und ob der Austritt Großbritanniens dort Marktanteilsgewinne der heimischen Wirtschaft ermöglichen könnte. In Abschnitt 6 wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche Instrumente und Maßnahmen von der Politik genutzt werden könnten, um einen fairen und regelbasierten Wettbewerb auf Basis des bisherigen ‚level-playing-field‘ zwischen nordrhein-westfälischen und britischen Unternehmen zu gewährleisten. In einem abschließenden Abschnitt 7 werden die wichtigsten Ergebnisse der Studie zusammengefasst.

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The Effects of German Regional Policy – Evidence at the Establishment Level

Matthias Brachert Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Eva Dettmann Alexander Giebler Lutz Schneider Mirko Titze

in: IWH Online, No. 5, 2020

Abstract

The “Joint Task ‘Improving Regional Economic Structures’ (GRW)” represents the most important regional policy scheme in Germany. The program provides non-repayable grants as a share of total investment costs to establishments (and municipalities) in structurally weak regions. The definition of eligible areas is based on i) a composite indicator measuring regional structural weakness and ii) a threshold determined by the European Union consisting of the population share of the respective country that lives in assisted regions. Responsible for the selection of the supported projects is the respective Federal State in which the GRW project is applied for.

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Short-term Economic Effects of a "Brexit" on the German Economy

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Geraldine Dany-Knedlik Andrej Drygalla Stefan Gebauer Oliver Holtemöller Martina Kämpfe Axel Lindner Claus Michelsen Malte Rieth Thore Schlaak

in: IWH Online, No. 3, 2019

Abstract

Many questions about Brexit remain open. It is still possible that the UK and the European Union will not be able to agree on a withdrawal agreement. In this case a so-called hard Brexit (No-Deal Brexit) would happen. We have examined the short-term effects of a hard Brexit for the German economy. In a first step, effects via the trading channel are estimated based on an input-output analysis of international and sectoral links. The result is a loss of 0.3% relative to gross domestic product. This magnitude also results from the international Halle Economic Projection Model, which takes into account macroeconomic repercussions. A hard Brexit would, in addition to the trade barriers, mean significant uncertainty for firms and households. On the demand side, this has a negative impact on investment activity and private consumption. Taken alone, these effects amount to 0.1% of gross domestic product. Overall, German gross domestic product could be dampened by several tenths of a percentage point in the one to two years following a hard Brexit. The automotive industry would probably suffer most. However, recommendations for discretionary economic policy measures aimed at dampening short-term macroeconomic effects or at individual economic sectors cannot be derived from this. The automatic stabilizers are sufficient given the expected magnitude of the effects.

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Refereed Publications

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Auswirkungen des gesetzlichen Mindestlohns im Handwerk in Sachsen-Anhalt

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Birgit Schultz

in: Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik, No. 2, 2018

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of the minimum wage introduction in Germany in 2015 on the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt. Using novel survey data on the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt, we examine three questions: (1) How many employees are affected by the minimum wage introduction in the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt? (2) What are the effects of the minimum wage introduction? (3) How did firms react to wage increase? We find that about 8 % of all employees in the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt are directly affected by the minimum wage introduction. A difference-in-difference estimation reveals no significant employment effects of the minimum wage introduction. We test for alternative adjustment strategies and observe a significant increase of output prices.

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Mapping Potentials for Input-Output Based Innovation Flows in Industrial Clusters – An Application to Germany

Matthias Brachert Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Mirko Titze

in: Economic Systems Research, No. 4, 2016

Abstract

Our paper pursues two aims: first, it presents an approach based on input–output innovation flow matrices to study intersectoral innovation flows within industrial clusters. Second, we apply this approach to the identification of structural weaknesses in East Germany relative to the western part of the country. The case of East Germany forms an interesting subject because while its convergence process after unification began promisingly in the first half of the 1990s, convergence has since slowed down. The existing gap can now be traced mainly to structural weaknesses in the East German economy, such as the absence of strong industrial cluster structures. With this in mind, we investigate whether East Germany does in fact reveal the abovementioned structural weaknesses. Does East Germany possess fewer industrial clusters? Are they less connected? Does East Germany lack specific clusters that are also important for the non-clustered part of the economy?

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Can R&D Subsidies Counteract the Economic Crisis? – Macroeconomic Effects in Germany

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Jutta Günther Brigitte Loose Udo Ludwig Nicole Nulsch

in: Research Policy, No. 3, 2015

Abstract

During the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009, governments in Europe stabilized their economies by means of fiscal policy. After decades of absence, deficit spending was used to counteract the heavy decline in demand. In Germany, public spending went partially into R&D subsidies in favor of small and medium sized enterprises. Applying the standard open input–output model, the paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of R&D subsidies on employment and production in the business cycle. Findings in the form of backward multipliers suggest that R&D subsidies have stimulated a substantial leverage effect. Almost two thirds of the costs of R&D projects are covered by the enterprises themselves. Overall, a subsidized R&D program results in a production, value added and employment effect that amounts to at least twice the initial financing. Overall, the R&D program counteracts the decline of GDP by 0.5% in the year 2009. In the year 2010 the effects are already procyclical since the German economy recovered quickly. Compared to the strongly discussed alternative uses of subsidies for private consumption, R&D spending is more effective.

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Working Papers

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Potential International Employment Effects of a Hard Brexit

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Oliver Holtemöller

in: IWH Discussion Papers, No. 4, 2019

Abstract

We use the World Input Output Database (WIOD) to estimate the potential employment effects of a hard Brexit in 43 countries. In line with other studies we assume that imports from the European Union (EU) to the UK will decline by 25% after a hard Brexit. The absolute effects are largest in big EU countries which have close trade relationships with the UK like Germany and France. However, there are also large countries outside the EU which are heavily affected via global value chains like China, for example. The relative effects (in percent of total employment) are largest in Malta and Ireland. UK employment will also be affected via intermediate input production. Within Germany, the motor vehicle industry and in particular the “Autostadt” Wolfsburg are most affected.

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The Minimum Wage Effects on Skilled Crafts Sector in Saxony-Anhalt

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Birgit Schultz

in: IWH Discussion Papers, No. 31, 2017

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of the minimum wage introduction in Germany in 2015 on the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt. Using novel survey data on the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt, we examine three questions: (1) How many employees are affected by the minimum wage introduction in the skilled crafts sector in Saxony- Anhalt? (2) What are the effects of the minimum wage introduction? (3) How have firms reacted to wage increase? We find that about 8% of all employees in the skilled crafts sector in Saxony-Anhalt are directly affected by the minimum wage introduction. A difference-in-difference estimation reveals no significant employment effects of the minimum wage introduction. We test for alternative adjustment strategies and observe a significant increase of output prices.

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Workplace Equipment and Workplace Gap by Gender in East and West Germany

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Johann Fuchs Cornelia Lang

in: IWH Discussion Papers, No. 9, 2006

Abstract

The paper investigates (a) the number and structure of available jobs by gender in East and West Germany, (b) the gap between the supply and demand of jobs by gender in both regions and (c) the reasons for the wider “job gap” in East Germany compared with West Germany. The paper uses data from the Regional National Accounts and the Federal Labor Office. The analysis shows no significant difference in the number of jobs per 1000 persons in working age between East and West Germany. For women, the East German economy offers more jobs. Nevertheless, the gap between labour demand and the supply of jobs is wider in East Germany. This is caused not only by problems concerning the production structure, but also by the significantly higher partizipation rate of women in the labor market. Reasons are the traditional behaviour of East German woman and – compared with West Germany – the considerably lower household income.

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