Professor Dr Udo Ludwig

Professor Dr Udo Ludwig
Current Position

since 1/05

Professor of Empirical Economic Research

Leipzig University

since 1/92

Economist in the Department of Macroeconomics

Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association

Research Interests

  • business cycle research and research on economic growth in a national and regional context
  • input-output analyses
  • studies on structural change of Germany's economy after 1945 - a comparison between East Germany's centrally planned economy and West Germany's market economy

Udo Ludwig is Honorary Professor of Empirical Economic Research at Leipzig University. He joined the institute in 1992. His research focuses on internationalisation of value creation processes, the implementation of input-output models, empirical comparison of economies, and economic change.

Udo Ludwig earned a diploma from St Petersburg University and received his PhD from the German Academy of Sciences at Berlin.

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Professor Dr Udo Ludwig
Professor Dr Udo Ludwig
Mitglied - Department Macroeconomics
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Publications

Recent Publications

Germany’s “Bazaar-economy” After the Financial and Economic Crisis

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Udo Ludwig

in: Klaus Voy (Ed.): Außenhandel und Globalisierung in gesamtwirtschaftlicher Sicht. Marburg: Metropolis, 2018

Abstract

Because of its huge dependence on the world markets, Germany’s economy was strongly hit by the financal and economic crisis in 2008/2009. Applying the input-output model, the paper deals with the net-impact of the export shock on value added and employment in Germany.

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Statistical presentation of international trade in the course of German unification

Udo Ludwig Klaus Voy

in: Klaus Voy (Ed.): Außenhandel und Globalisierung in gesamtwirtschaftlicher Sicht. Marburg: Metropolis, 2018

Abstract

How did the German unification influence the development and the statistical presentation of he contemporary trade of the eastern and western part of Germany? The parallel presentation oft he regional gross domestic products and their demand components is he only way, to describe adequate the flow of goods and between both the two parts of the German economy as well as with the rest of the world.

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The Macroeconomic Development of the Soviet Occupied Zone/GDR (1949 until 1989) – a Balance

Udo Ludwig

in: Günther Heydemann, Karl-Heinz Paqué (Hrsg.): Planwirtschaft – Privatisierung – Marktwirtschaft. Wirtschaftsordnung und -entwicklung in der SBZ/DDR und den neuen Bundesländern 1945 - 1994. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2017

Abstract

Applying the growth accounting model the impact of labor and capital inputs as well as of the technological progress on GDP growth in different historical periods oft Eastern Germany is estimated. The main finding is the failure of the central planning model to modernize the economy. The total factor productivity dominated the economic growth only during the economic reforms in the second halve of the 60ies.

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Refereed Publications

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Can R&D Subsidies Counteract the Economic Crisis? – Macroeconomic Effects in Germany

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Jutta Günther Brigitte Loose Udo Ludwig Nicole Nulsch

in: Research Policy, No. 3, 2015

Abstract

During the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009, governments in Europe stabilized their economies by means of fiscal policy. After decades of absence, deficit spending was used to counteract the heavy decline in demand. In Germany, public spending went partially into R&D subsidies in favor of small and medium sized enterprises. Applying the standard open input–output model, the paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of R&D subsidies on employment and production in the business cycle. Findings in the form of backward multipliers suggest that R&D subsidies have stimulated a substantial leverage effect. Almost two thirds of the costs of R&D projects are covered by the enterprises themselves. Overall, a subsidized R&D program results in a production, value added and employment effect that amounts to at least twice the initial financing. Overall, the R&D program counteracts the decline of GDP by 0.5% in the year 2009. In the year 2010 the effects are already procyclical since the German economy recovered quickly. Compared to the strongly discussed alternative uses of subsidies for private consumption, R&D spending is more effective.

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The Skills Balance in Germany’s Import Intensity of Exports: An Input-Output Analysis

Udo Ludwig Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch

in: Intereconomics, No. 2, 2014

Abstract

In the decade prior to the economic and financial crisis, Germany’s net exports increased in absolute terms as well as relative to the growing level of import intensity of domestically produced export goods and services. This article analyses the direct and indirect employment effects induced both by exports as well as by of the import intensity of the production process of export goods and services on the skills used. It shows that Germany’s export surpluses led to positive net employment effects. Although the volume of imports of intermediate goods increased and was augmented by the rise in exports, it could not undermine the overall positive employment effect.

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Neo-liberalism, the Changing German Labor Market, and Income Distribution: An Institutionalist and Post Keynesian Analysis

John B. Hall Udo Ludwig

in: Journal of Economic Issues, 2010

Abstract

This inquiry relies on an Institutionalist and Post Keynesian analysis to explore Germany's neo-liberal project, noting cumulative effects emerging as measurable economic and societal outcomes. Investments in technologies generate rising output-to-capital ratios. Increasing exports offset the Domar problem, but give rise to capital surpluses. National income redistributes in favor of capital. Novel labor market institutions emerge. Following Minsky, good times lead to bad: as seeming successes of neo-liberal policies are accompanied by financial instability, growing disparities in household incomes, and sharp declines in German exports on world markets, resulting in one of the deepest, recent contractions in the industrialized world.

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Working Papers

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Der Exportsektor im ostdeutschen Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und seine Bedeutung für das betriebliche Wachstum - eine Auswertung von Mikrodaten der amtlichen Statistik und einer IWH-Industrieumfrage -

Brigitte Loose Udo Ludwig

in: IWH Discussion Papers, No. 169, 2003

Abstract

This paper deals with the presence of East German manufacturers in foreign product markets. The following questions are discussed: Which factories sell their products abroad? What influences the export activities? Hypotheses are built on the basis of different trade theories, such as the relative position of the enterprises in their home market, the cumulation of learning effects in production and sales, the saturation of the domestic market and others. Individual data sets from industrial surveys for 1995 and 2000 are used to reveal the relationship between the company’s technical as well as institutional characteristics and their participation in export activities. Bivariate and multivariate approaches are applied. Additionally, a sample of enterprises has been asked to assess their export activities.

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Vierteljährliche Entstehungsrechnung des Bruttoinlandsprodukts für Ostdeutschland: Sektorale Bruttowertschöpfung

Hans-Ulrich Brautzsch Udo Ludwig

in: IWH Discussion Papers, No. 164, 2002

Abstract

Data regarding the development of macroeconomic production and employment are essential for the political decision process. Especially timely available information is a critical issue. Reliable short run data are not reported for East Germany yet. Because of data limitations for the past quarterly sectoral series of production and employment are derived from annual national accounts data using a set of indicators by branches. Indicators have been tested and cover working hours and sales, among others. For the period from 1992 to 2001 quarterly series for sectoral GDP are derived. A flash estimator for the overall macroeconomic performance is obtained through aggregation.

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Überregionale Absatztätigkeit der ostdeutschen Industrie– eine empirische Analyse anhand der Daten des IAB-Betriebspanels –

Brigitte Loose Udo Ludwig

in: IWH Discussion Papers, No. 153, 2001

Abstract

In diesem Aufsatz wird die Exportorientierung der Betriebe des ostdeutschen Verarbeitenden Gewerbes in einer erweiterten Fassung analysiert, die neben dem Ausland auch das frühere Bundesgebiet als Absatzmarkt einschließt. Ge­genstand der bivariaten und multivariaten Untersuchung sind die Zusammen­hänge zwischen verschiedenen technischen und institutionellen Merkmalen der Betriebe und ihrem überregionalen Absatzengagement. Ausgangspunkt der Thesenbildung sind die unterschiedlich hohen Transaktionskosten auf den Märkten in Deutschland und außerhalb. Als Datenbasis dienen die Arbeit­geberbefragun­gen im IAB-Betriebspanel von 1999 und 2000.

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