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Aktuelle Trends: Ostdeutschland ähnlich innovativ wie Westdeutschland

Innovationen im Sinne neuer Produkte und Produktionsprozesse sind Ausdruck des technischen Fortschritts und sichern die betriebliche Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Im IAB-Betriebspanel lassen sich drei Arten von Produktinnovationen unterscheiden: (a) die Weiterentwicklung vorhandener Produkte (inkrementelle Innovation), (b) die Erweiterung der Produktpalette um ein bereits am Markt vorhandenes Produkt (Imitation) und (c) die Einführung eines gänzlich neuen Produktes, für das ein neuer Markt geschaffen werden muss (Marktneuheit). Neben den Produktinnovationen werden auch Prozessinnovationen erfasst. Dabei handelt es sich um neue oder veränderte Verfahren, die den Produktionsprozess oder das Bereitstellen von Dienstleistungen verbessern.

22. September 2010

Authors A. Crimmann K. Evers Jutta Günther Katja Guhr Marco Sunder

Also in this issue

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Editorial

Diemo Dietrich

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2010

Abstract

Die Politik in Europa will bei der Regulierung der Banken und Finanzmärkte Handlungswillen demonstrieren. Nahm man im Jahr 2009 schon Banker-Boni, Rating-Agenturen und Derivate an die Leine, haben die EU-Finanzminister jüngst den Aufbau europäischer Aufsichtsbehörden für Banken, Versicherungen und Wertpapiermärkte beschlossen. Grundsätzlich ist eine Zentralisierung von Aufsichtskompetenzen auf europäischer Ebene angemessen. Finanzinstitute werden nicht durch Staatsgrenzen eingeschränkt und verteilen Geschäftsteile, auch in Reaktion auf nationale Aufsichtsunterschiede, auf die für sie günstigsten Länder. Zudem haben die nationalen Aufsichtsbehörden in der Krise auf Probleme im Finanzsektor nicht immer angemessen reagiert, auch weil sie deren ganzes Ausmaß nicht erfassen wollten oder konnten.

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Energy Efficiency of the Housing Stock: Are potential savings overrated?

Claus Michelsen S. Müller-Michelsen

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2010

Abstract

A core element of the European Climate Protection Policy is the reduction of Energy usage in private households. Legal instruments focus particularly on private multifamily housing. When refurbishing or building a new home, the German regulation for energy saving in buildings and building systems, Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV 2009), thereby formulates relatively strict standards on energy conservation. But these standards mainly address the technical potentials of energy efficiency gains instead of considering market conditions and different types of housing, especially their age. Theory suggests that legal settings therefore retain owners to refurbish their homes, when returns on investment are negative, especially in regions where market conditions do not allow for higher rents or the costs of refurbishment are too high. The article presents evidence for these theoretical considerations: based on a large scale sample provided by the company ista Germany, it can be shown, that energy usage differs by the age of dwellings and by the standard of refurbishment. Data suggests that the assumed potentials of energy conservation, which are mainly motivated by technical considerations, are too high. The differences may be a result of different cost functions of refurbishment. Further evidence for this finding is provided by architectural considerations. As a result, the article suggests to legally distinguishing between different types of housing and to consider market conditions, when providing public funding for energy efficiency. It is suggested to implement a two multidimensional strategy, considering climate protection, urban development issues and the rationality of real estate investors.

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IWH-Bauumfrage im August 2010: Hochbau und Ausbau weiter im Aufwind

Brigitte Loose

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2010

Abstract

Der Aufschwung im ostdeutschen Baugewerbe hält nach der neuesten Konjunkturumfrage des IWH vom August 2010 unvermindert an. Die rund 300 befragten Unternehmen schätzen ihre Geschäftslage und die Aussichten für das nächste halbe Jahr äußerst positiv ein. Gegenüber der vorangegangenen Befragung im Juni verbesserte sich die Geschäftslage sprungartig um 19 und die Geschäftsaussichten um 14 Saldenpunkte. Auch gegenüber Jahresfrist hellte sich die Stimmung weiter auf, die Geschäftsaussichten stiegen um 20 und die Geschäftslage um 17 Punkte.

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German Economy Recovers Surprisingly Quickly from Last Year’s Recession

Arbeitskreis Konjunktur des IWH Kiel Economics

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2010

Abstract

The German economy recovers surprisingly quickly from last year’s recession. For this year, we expect GDP to grow by 3.5%. Next year, when GDP growth should reach a rate of 2%, the general government deficit is likely to fall below the 3% mark of the Stability and Growth pact – if the government indeed realizes the stabilization program it decided on this summer. Unemployment will continue to decline. We see three main causes for this favorable development: first, the German economy benefits strongly from the high growth dynamics in emerging markets, since German firms are well positioned for producing investment goods that are particularly sought-after in these countries. Second, growing demand for labor in Germany means that employment and labor income is on the rise. Partly, this is the reward for a long time of low wage rises that have made labor in Germany competitive again. Third, the expansive monetary policy in the euro area is particularly stimulating since here debt levels of private households and firms are moderate and therefore do not dampen the stimulating effects of low interest rates, as they do in many euro area partner countries with highly indebted private and public agents.

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The German New Fiscal Rule (Schuldenbremse): Previous Agreements Question Success on the Länder Level

Kristina vanDeuverden Sabine Freye

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2010

Abstract

Starting in 2011, Germany will have a new fiscal rule to limit indebtedness - the debt brake. To encourage the functioning of this regulation on federal and Länder level, an advice board (Stabilitätsrat) was founded in April 2010. In a first step he selected four key numbers and defined thresholds. This article focuses on the chosen indicators and thresholds on Länder level by evaluating the effectiveness of both, the key figures themselves and their thresholds. We are analyzing time series from 1995 to 2009. The findings show that in general, the chosen figures are able to indicate a possible debt risk. However, the threshold values of the advice board endanger the effectiveness of the debt brake. This danger is especially caused by the mode of calculation: The thresholds are based on an average of German Länder. For this reason, only extremely negative household developments are pointed out. Furthermore, the new German debt brake is fundamentally based on the structural budget balance. Nevertheless, this key figure has not directly been chosen by the board. The approach of the board can be explained by the fact that there is - so far - no agreement between the federal level and the Länder how to calculate the structural balance on the Länder level. This circumstance is precarious, because the debt brake cannot step really into force without the calculation of the structural budget balance for the Länder. For this reason, we try to close this vacancy by proposing a possible calculating mode for the structural part of the budget. The results of this calculation are indicating that on average the fiscal policy of the Länder was not sustainable. Key numbers as defined by the board indicated this only for a few of the Länder. From our point of view policy urgently has to act – otherwise the debt brake might not be successful.

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