Globalisierung und Beschäftigung – eine Untersuchung mit der Input-Output-Methode.
In the course of globalization imports play a more and more important role as inputs for national production. In the wake of this development, domestic products are substituted by imported goods and jobs are moved abroad. However, this enables domestic companies to become more competitive and to improve their position in national and international markets. Applying input-output techniques this paper shows that, although imports have risen considerably, the increase in domestic production induced by exports had an overall positive impact on the German economy. This holds not only for the trade balance of production sectors that are oriented to export activities, but for the trade balance as a whole. Overall, high export surpluses were accompanied by increases in value added. Furthermore, especially in the second half of the last decade employment benefited much; while the rising import of intermediate and finished goods has caused many job cuts, on balance the increase in employment in the wake of the strong export expansion has outdone the losses. Even though many industrialized economies in Europe have made similar experiences, the impacts on job markets differed considerably. For example, while the strength of the increase in employment in the Netherlands was similarly to that in Germany, labour market improvements in France were much weaker, not least due to noticeably lower export surpluses.