Patents and technology transfer from universities - a literature review
Knowledge and technologies produced at universities have to be transferred to industry for being used. In Germany the professor's privilege (of self-commercializing an invention) was abolished in 2002 in order to enhance academic patents. Additionally, regional licensing offices (“Patentverwertungsagenturen“) were established for finding companies that license academic patents. But this channel of technology represents only one of several possibilities. The article presents a survey of papers in the field of technology transfer and gives policy recommendations deduced from them. The two main points are: patent licensing offices in Germany are unnecessary narrowly focused institutions. They need to be expanded into broad service institutions for all kinds of technology transfer. And it is unrealistic to earn money for the universities with them - even though some will do - and the state has to finance them permanently, if technology transfer is a policy aim.