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Spatial Distribution of East German Innovative Competencies: Significant Increase in the Southwestern Hinterland of Berlin and in the Centres of Saxony and Thuringia

Patent applications constitute an essential indicator for the extent of innovative activities in an economy or region. Due to the fact that innovative activities are in general spatially concentrated, policy makers perceive in this information starting points for a growth-oriented regional policy. Against this background, the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) in 2004 had examined the spatial distribution of industries, firm networks and innovative competencies in the context of an area-wide study for East Germany. Newly available data for the patent statistics allow for an updating of these results regarding the innovative competencies for the time period from 2000 to 2005. In comparison to the time period between 1995 and 2000, an increase in innovative competencies becomes evident. This growth takes place almost exclusively in regions where innovative competencies are already domiciled. All in all, the growth dynamics of East Germany with regard to patent applications is slightly behind the West German one. The distribution of technological fields, to which the applied patents refer to, remained largely constant during the two observation periods. In the area of bio-technology, electrical engineering and of health care the standing of East Germany has further improved. With regard to political implications, the data should not be used for imposing technology specific support programs. Instead a tax relief for R&D independent of the used technologies seems to be more adequate.

19. September 2007

Authors Peter Franz

Also in this issue

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Aktuelle Trends: Ostdeutsche Patentdynamik in Thüringen und Sachsen am höchsten

Peter Franz

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2007

Abstract

Die kleinräumig gegliederte und auf den Erfindersitz bezogene Statistik der Patentanmeldungen des Deutschen Patent- und Markenamts (DPMA) gibt Aufschluß über regionale Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Erfindungsaktivitäten. Da Patente zugleich eine wichtige Vorstufe wirtschaftlicher Innovationen darstellen, wird das Ausmaß der Patentierungen regelmäßig als output-orientierter Indikator für die Innovationsorientierung der Wirtschaft in der jeweils betrachteten Region herangezogen. Zudem informiert die – hier betrachtete – Veränderung der Zahl der Patentanmeldungen in einem bestimmten Zeitraum über die Entwicklungsdynamik der Patentieraktivitäten in einer Region.

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Editorial

Ulrich Blum

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2007

Abstract

Nach dem Abschluß dessen, was gemeinhin als Systemtransformation bezeichnet wird, öffnete sich den betroffenen postkommunistischen Ländern, zu denen auch Ostdeutschland zählt, ein Entwicklungskorridor eigener Art, der wesentliche Unterschiede gegenüber denen klassischer westlicher Industriestaaten besitzt. Hierzu zählt die extreme Gruppenstruktur, also die starke Polarisierung zwischen vielen sehr kleinen und einigen sehr großen Betrieben, eine unterdurchschnittliche private Forschungs- und Entwicklungsintensität und ein weitgehendes Fehlen von Firmensitzen, insbesondere solchen von Unternehmen mit internationaler strategischer Aufstellung.

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Research and Development: important source for product innovation also in East Germany

Jutta Günther François Peglow

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2007

Abstract

The development and successful introduction of new products is a fundamental feature of a modern knowledge society. After completion of the retrieving technological renewals in East Germany, businesses in the newly-formed German states have to stand up to the competition for marketable concepts and ideas. In doing so, the structural particularities on the strength of transformation are still in force and besides, the embedding of East Germany between high-tech in the West and catching up countries in the East constitutes an additional challenge. This article outlines the innovation activities of East German companies and pursues in the framework of an multivariate analysis to follow up intra-corporate determining factors for product innovations The empirical analysis, employing the IAB establishment panel, shows an active share of innovation participation of companies belonging to the manufacturing industry in East Germany during the years 2002 and 2003. The proportion of companies with product innovation in the newly-formed German states even lies slightly above the reference value for West Germany. Especially companies with an own Research and Development (R&D) department are introducing new products twice as much as companies without an R&D division. The regression analysis proves that own R&D represents the strongest driving force for product innovations in regard to input factors. Moreover, continuing operational education can also be attested a positive impact on innovation activities and emphasizes concurrently the meaning of long-life learning. In reference to business specific characteristics, it stands out that foreign equity participation imposes a significant negative impact of on product innovations. This result, deserving further analysis, indicates the phenomenon of so-called subcontracting.

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Innovations as driving force of the knowledge society – concepts and contemporary theoretical approaches

Jutta Günther Björn Jindra

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2007

Abstract

In response to the question what secures Europe’s future competitiveness, it is often in the context of “knowledge society” referred to location advantages for research and development (R&D), innovation and knowledge. Respective point of view is not only represented by decision makers of high-duty industrial countries, but also by so called catching up economies in Central and Eastern Europe as well as Asia. The present article deals against the background of current innovation theoretic approaches with the question of what indeed constitutes the abstract notion of the knowledge society, which actors play a role and how R&D and innovation are geographically distributed. Systemic approaches are outlined, which place emphasis on the relation among different knowledge generating actors, in particular among science and economy. In effort to elucidate the geographical distribution of R&D and innovation the authors refer to the regional economic theory, which constitute the reasons why such processes are marked by spatial concentration. Thereby, the hypotheses are competing in associating the spatial concentration with either sectoral specialization or diversification. The article shows the domination of multinational companies of research and development (R&D) in the private sector and that these businesses connect regional centers of innovations beyond national borders. Based on the theory of technological accumulation and internationalization of companies, the globalization of R&D and innovation processes are explained. Thereby, it must be recognized that a hierarchy of regional innovation systems is emerging in which the disparities are increasing both at home and abroad.

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IWH-Bauumfrage im August 2007: Geschäftsklima hat sich stabilisiert

Brigitte Loose

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2007

Abstract

Die Geschäftslage und die Geschäftsaussichten wurden von den 300 vom IWH befragten ostdeutschen Bauunternehmen im August per saldo schlechter beurteilt als vor Jahresfrist. Diese Entwicklung war insofern zu erwarten, als die Basis im vergangenen Jahr durch Vorzieheffekte im Zusammenhang mit der Abschaffung der Eigenheimzulage und der Erhöhung der Mehrwertsteuer überhöht war. Gegenüber der vorangegangenen Umfrage im Juni gaben mehr Unternehmen eine Besserung ihrer Lage an, unter Ausschluß der Saisoneffekte bedeutet dies aber nicht mehr als Stabilisierung. Die Geschäftsaussichten bis über den Jahreswechsel hinaus werden geringfügig schlechter bewertet.

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Ten years of entrepreneurship education in Germany: a positive interim result

Jutta Günther Kerstin Wagner Ilka Ritter

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 9, 2007

Abstract

Innovative business start-ups are an essential component and an expression of dynamic economic development. Nevertheless, start-ups do not emerge in a vacuum but require an appropriate institutional framework. Therefore, the topic of entrepreneurial education attracts gradually more interest of German universities since the 1990s. In 1997, the first professorship for this subject was announced and the number of respective chairs is rising ever since. The present article draws a balance by asking: To what extend and with which contents entrepreneurship education is currently offered at colleges and universities? What are the contents of teaching and what teaching manuals are dominant? To what extend are universities endowed with an infrastructure for commercializing knowledge complementary to their education? Are professorships and technology transfer centers of universities cooperatively aligned? These and further questions about the entrepreneurial education as part of academic technology transfer will be addressed in this article. Overall, a positive development regarding the range of teaching as well as the embedding in the overarching theme of technology transfer is recognizable. However, further efforts appear to be required, so that the in principle positive assessments can only form a first interim balance on the way towards “More enterprise start-ups out of university”.

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