Unions as Insurance: Workplace Unionization and Workers' Outcomes During COVID-19
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society,
Abstract We investigate to what extent workplace unionization protects workers from external shocks by preventing involuntary job separations. Using the COVID-19 pandemic as a plausibly exogenous shock hitting the whole economy, we compare workers who worked in unionized and non-unionized workplaces directly before the pandemic in a difference-in-differences framework. We find that unionized workers were substantially more likely to remain working for their pre-COVID employer and to be in employment. This greater employment stability was not traded off against lower working hours or labor income.
08.02.2024 • 3/2024
IWH-Insolvenztrend: Zahl der Firmenpleiten weiterhin hoch – Corona-Hilfen für schwache Unternehmen sind ein Grund
Nach dem Rekordwert im Dezember bleibt die Zahl der Insolvenzen von Personen- und Kapitalgesellschaften im Januar auf unverändert hohem Niveau, zeigt die aktuelle Analyse des Leibniz-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH). Erklären lässt sich die heutige Lage auch mit den Staatshilfen während der Corona-Pandemie.
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Tracking Weekly State-Level Economic Conditions
Review of Economics and Statistics,
This paper develops a novel dataset of weekly economic conditions indices for the 50 U.S. states going back to 1987 based on mixed-frequency dynamic factor models with weekly, monthly, and quarterly variables that cover multiple dimensions of state economies. We find considerable cross-state heterogeneity in the length, depth, and timing of business cycles. We illustrate the usefulness of these state-level indices for quantifying the main contributors to the economic collapse caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and for evaluating the effectiveness of the Paycheck Protection Program. We also propose an aggregate indicator that gauges the overall weakness of the U.S. economy.
Corporate Bankruptcies in Germany
Corporate bankruptcy in Germany has been on a long-run decline. Even before the recent double crisis of the pandemic and multiple cost shocks, bankruptcy figures were one-third lower than around the turn of the century but were larger and affected more mature firms. With the onset of the double crisis, bankruptcies plummeted further while the number of affected jobs rose initially. Government rescue programmes hindered the exit of many small unproductive firms. Since mid-2023, bankruptcies of registered firms are higher than before the pandemic. Due to the current recession and the need to repay government support, the number of bankruptcies will rise until the end of 2023 and likely beyond.
Herding Behavior and Systemic Risk in Global Stock Markets
Journal of Empirical Finance,
This paper provides new evidence of herding due to non- and fundamental information in global equity markets. Using quantile regressions applied to daily data for 33 countries, we investigate herding during the Eurozone crisis, China’s market crash in 2015–2016, in the aftermath of the Brexit vote and during the Covid-19 Pandemic. We find significant evidence of herding driven by non-fundamental information in case of negative tail market conditions for most countries. This study also investigates the relationship between herding and systemic risk, suggesting that herding due to fundamentals increases when systemic risk increases more than when driven by non-fundamentals. Granger causality tests and Johansen’s vector error-correction model provide solid empirical evidence of a strong interrelationship between herding and systemic risk, entailing that herding behavior may be an ex-ante aspect of systemic risk, with a more relevant role played by herding based on fundamental information in increasing systemic risk.
Aktuelle Trends: Staatsverbrauch wieder zurück auf Vor-Covid-Trend
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Der vierteljährliche Staatsverbrauch in Abgrenzung der Volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnungen ist im ersten Quartal 2023 wieder annähernd zurück auf den Vor-Covid-Trend gefallen. Mit dem Ausbruch der Corona-Pandemie im Frühjahr 2020 hatte der Staatsverbrauch deutlich zugenommen, weil dort zahlreiche Maßnahmen verbucht wurden, die der Staat zur Bewältigung der Pandemie ergriffen hat, etwa der Kauf von Schutzausrüstung, Corona-Tests, medizinische Behandlungen oder finanzielle Zuwendungen an Krankenhäuser.
Cross-country Evidence on the Allocation of COVID-19 Government Subsidies and Consequences for Productivity
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies,
We study the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic and related policy support on productivity. We employ an extensive micro-distributed exercise to access otherwise unavailable individual data on firm performance and government subsidies. Our cross-country evidence for five EU countries shows that the pandemic led to a significant short-term decline in aggregate productivity and the direct support to firms had only a limited positive effect on productivity developments. A thorough comparative analysis of the distribution of employment and overall direct subsidies, considering separately also relative firm-level size of support and the probability of being supported, reveals ambiguous cross-country results related to the firm-level productivity and points to the decisive role of other firm characteristics.
IWH Medium-Term Projection The IWH medium-term projection shows: If Germany wants to stick to both its current debt...