IWH FDI Micro Database
IWH FDI Micro Database The IWH FDI Micro Database (FDI = Foreign Direct...
Bank Financing, Institutions and Regional Entrepreneurial Activities: Evidence from China
International Review of Economics & Finance,
We investigate the effects of bank financing on regional entrepreneurial activities in China. We present contrasting findings on the role of quantity vs. quality of bank financing on small business formation in China: while we document a consistent, significantly positive relationship between the quality of bank financing and new venture formation, we find that the quantity of supplied credit is insignificant. We report that formal institutions are positively correlated to regional entrepreneurial activities, and informal institutions substitute formal institutions. Our findings also reveal that the institutional environment tends to supplement bank financing in promoting regional entrepreneurial activities.
TV and Entrepreneurship
IWH Discussion Papers,
We empirically analyse whether television (TV) can influence entrepreneurial identity and incidence. To identify causal effects, we utilise a quasi-natural experiment setting. During the division of Germany after WWII into West Germany with a free-market economy and the socialistic East Germany with centrally-planned economy, some East German regions had access to West German public TV that – differently from the East German TV – transmitted images, values, attitudes and view of life compatible with the free-market economy principles and supportive of entrepreneurship. We show that during the 40 years of socialistic regime in East Germany entrepreneurship was highly regulated and virtually impossible and that the prevalent formal and informal institutions broke the traditional ties linking entrepreneurship to the characteristics of individuals so that there were hardly any differences in the levels and development of entrepreneurship between East German regions with and without West German TV signal. Using both, regional and individual level data, we show then that, for the period after the Unification in 1990 which made starting an own business in East Germany, possible again, entrepreneurship incidence is higher among the residents of East German regions that had access to West German public TV, indicating that TV can, while transmitting specific images, values, attitudes and view of life, directly impact on the entrepreneurial mindset of individuals. Moreover, we find that young individuals born after 1980 in East German households that had access to West German TV are also more entrepreneurial. These findings point to second-order effects due to inter-personal and inter-generational transmission, a mechanism that can cause persistent differences in the entrepreneurship incidence across (geographically defined) population groups.
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Herr Trichet hat die Europäer auf Zinserhöhungen ab Anfang August eingestellt. Die Ankündigung weiterer Zinsanhebungen wird mit den gestiegenen Inflationsrisiken im Euro-Raum begründet. Die Furcht vor einer höheren Inflation haben die Zentralbanker ausschließlich aus der monetären Analyse gewonnen, d. h. aus der Betrachtung der Geldmengen- und Kreditentwicklung im Euro-Raum. Sie wird quantitativ mit einem Modell unterlegt, welches einen engen Zusammenhang zwischen Geldmengenwachstum und folgender Inflation postuliert. Das Prognosemodell hat in der Vergangenheit die tatsächliche Inflationsrate aber meistens überzeichnet, manchmal auch unterzeichnet. Die Abweichungen liegen zwischen -0,2 und 0,5 Prozentpunkte, was bei einem Inflationsziel von 2% eine durchaus beträchtliche Fehlerquote ist und damit zu Fehlentscheidungen beitragen kann.