Eine Hochfrequenzanalyse zur Abgrenzung von überlagernden Effekten am Beispiel des Ausfallrisikos italienischer Staatsanleihen
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die wirtschaftliche Aktivität und das Ausfallrisiko staatlicher Schulden beeinflussen sich gegenseitig. Sinkt die wirtschaftliche Aktivität einer Volkswirtschaft, steigt wegen fallender Steuereinnahmen das Risiko, dass der Staat Zinszahlungen und Tilgungen auf Staatsanleihen nicht zurückzahlen kann. Umgekehrt kann das staatliche Ausfallrisiko seinerseits die wirtschaftliche Aktivität beeinflussen. Steigt das Ausfallrisiko, geraten Banken unter Druck, die Staatsanleihen in ihren Bilanzen führen, und reduzieren die Kreditvergabe an Unternehmen. In der Konsequenz sinkt die wirtschaftliche Aktivität. Dieser Beitrag nutzt hochfrequente News-Ticker-Daten zur Ableitung politischer Ereignisse und davon ausgelöster Fluktuationen im Staatsschuldenrisiko. Diese allein politisch bedingten Fluktuationen ermöglichen es, den Effekt des Staatsschuldenrisikos auf die wirtschaftliche Aktivität zu messen, ohne dass die Schätzung von der gegenläufigen Beziehung der Variablen beeinträchtigt wird. Das Vorgehen wird am Beispiel Italiens erläutert.
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Ricardian Equivalence, Foreign Debt and Sovereign Default Risk
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization,
We study the impact of sovereign solvency on the private-public savings offset. Using data on 80 economies for 1989–2018, we find robust evidence for a U-shaped pattern in the private-public savings offset in sovereign credit ratings. While the 1:1 savings offset is observed at intermediate levels of sovereign solvency, fiscal deficits are not offset by private savings at extremely low and high levels of sovereign solvency. Particularly, the U-shaped pattern is more pronounced for countries with high levels of foreign ownership of government debt. The U-shaped pattern is an emerging market phenomenon; additionally, it is confirmed when considering foreign currency rating and external public debt, but not for domestic currency rating and domestic public debt. For considerable foreign ownership of sovereign bonds, sovereign default constitutes a net wealth gain for domestic consumers.
The Effects of Sovereign Risk: A High Frequency Identification Based on News Ticker Data
IWH Discussion Papers,
This paper uses novel news ticker data to evaluate the effect of sovereign risk on economic and financial outcomes. The use of intraday news enables me to derive policy events and respective timestamps that potentially alter investors’ beliefs about a sovereign’s willingness to service its debt and thereby sovereign risk. Following the high frequency identification literature, in the tradition of Kuttner (2001) and Guerkaynak et al. (2005), associated variation in sovereign risk is then obtained by capturing bond price movements within narrowly defined time windows around the event time. I conduct the outlined identification for Italy since its large bond market and its frequent coverage in the news render it a suitable candidate country. Using the identified shocks in an instrumental variable local projection setting yields a strong instrument and robust results in line with theoretical predictions. I document a dampening effect of sovereign risk on output. Also, borrowing costs for the private sector increase and inflation rises in response to higher sovereign risk.
Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Fragility: Empirical Evidence from the OECD
Journal of International Money and Finance,
In this paper, we use local projections to investigate the impact of consolidation shocks on GDP growth, conditional on the fragility of government finances. Based on a database of fiscal plans in OECD countries, we show that spending shocks are less detrimental than tax-based consolidation. In times of fiscal fragility, our results indicate strongly that governments should consolidate through surprise policy changes rather than announcements of consolidation at a later horizon.
The Effects of Fiscal Policy in an Estimated DSGE Model – The Case of the German Stimulus Packages During the Great Recession
In this paper, we analyze the effects of the stimulus packages adopted by the German government during the Great Recession. We employ a standard medium-scale dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model extended by non-optimizing households and a detailed fiscal sector. In particular, the dynamics of spending and revenue variables are modeled as feedback rules with respect to the cyclical components of output, hours worked and private investment. Based on the estimated rules, fiscal shocks are identified. According to the results, fiscal policy, in particular public consumption, investment, and transfers prevented a sharper and prolonged decline of German output at the beginning of the Great Recession, suggesting a timely response of fiscal policy. The overall effects, however, are small when compared to other domestic and international shocks that contributed to the economic downturn. Our overall findings are not sensitive to considering fiscal foresight.
Significant Cooling of the Economy — Political Risks High
The German economy has cooled noticeably since mid-2018, and the long-term upswing has thus apparently come to an end. This weaker momentum was triggered both by the international environment and by industry-specific events. The global economic environment has deteriorated — due in part to political risks — and the manufacturing sector is struggling with obstacles to production. Germany’s economy is currently going through a cooling-off phase in which capacity shortages in the economy as a whole are declining. The institutes expect economic growth of only 0.8% in 2019, which is more than one percentage point less than in autumn 2018.