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Joint Economic Forecast
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Wages and the Value of Nonemployment
Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Nonemployment is often posited as a worker’s outside option in wage-setting models such as bargaining and wage posting. The value of nonemployment is therefore a key determinant of wages. We measure the wage effect of changes in the value of nonemployment among initially employed workers. Our quasi-experimental variation in the value of nonemployment arises from four large reforms of unemployment insurance (UI) benefit levels in Austria. We document that wages are insensitive to UI benefit changes: point estimates imply a wage response of less than $0.01 per $1.00 UI benefit increase, and we can reject sensitivities larger than $0.03. The insensitivity holds even among workers with low wages and high predicted unemployment duration, and among job switchers hired out of unemployment. The insensitivity of wages to the nonemployment value presents a puzzle to the widely used Nash bargaining model, which predicts a sensitivity of $0.24–$0.48. Our evidence supports wage-setting models that insulate wages from the value of nonemployment.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Economic Sanctions between the EU and Russia on Output and Employment in the German Economy
Followed by the escalation of the Ukraine conflict in 2014, the European Union and Russia introduced bilateral economic sanctions which accelerated an already existing decline of the German exports to Russia. The article focuses on the effects of the losses in exports to Russia on production and employment in Germany. The analysis makes use of an input-output approach capturing direct as well as indirect effects throughout the supply chain. The results calculated on the base of the actual Input-Output Table for Germany exhibit a cumulated loss in GDP of 0.15% due to sanctions in the years 2014 to 2016. Especially export-oriented German sectors with strong backward linkages, such as motor vehicles and machinery, are affected.
Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Institutional and Cultural Determinants
Using panel data for 29 source and 65 host countries in the period 1995–2009, we examine the determinants of bilateral FDI stocks, focusing on institutional and cultural factors. The results reveal that institutional and cultural distance is important and that FDI has a predominantly regional aspect. FDI to developing countries is positively affected by better institutions in the host country, while foreign investors prefer to invest in developed countries that are more corrupt and politically unstable compared to home. The results indicate that foreign investors prefer to invest in countries with less diverse societies than their own.
Demographie und Einwanderung
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Die demographischen Effekte sind in Ostdeutschland viel drastischer als in Westdeutschland und viel gravierender auf dem Land als in der Stadt. Die Bevölkerung in Ostdeutschland schrumpft schneller als im Westen, und sie wird immer älter. Manchen Regionen droht die Entvölkerung. Nach Prognosen des Statistischen Bundesamts ist im Jahr 2030 jeder dritte Ostdeutsche 65 Jahre und älter. Der Umgang mit diesem Problem, gerade im Osten, wird in meinen Augen die größte Herausforderung der nächsten Jahrzehnte sein.