State Aid and Guarantees in Europe
T. Beck, B. Casu (eds): The Palgrave Handbook of European Banking, London,
During the recent financial crisis, governments massively intervened in the banking sector by providing liquidity assistance and capital support to banks in distress. This helped stabilize the financial system in the short run. However, public bailouts also bear the risk of longer-term distortions, for example, by affecting bailout expectations of banks. In this chapter, the authors first provide an overview of state aid interventions during the recent crisis episode. The third section then analyzes the effects of state aid on financial stability from a theoretical view. This is followed by the description of results obtained from empirical studies. The link between the provision of state aid and politics is discussed in the section “Institutional Design and Policy Implications”. Finally, in the section “The European Banking Union” the authors describe the elements of the European Banking Union meant to resolve and restructure banks in distress and to lower the need for public intervention. Based on the preceding analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the new design.
Direct and Indirect Effects of Economic Sanctions between the EU and Russia on Output and Employment in the German Economy
Followed by the escalation of the Ukraine conflict in 2014, the European Union and Russia introduced bilateral economic sanctions which accelerated an already existing decline of the German exports to Russia. The article focuses on the effects of the losses in exports to Russia on production and employment in Germany. The analysis makes use of an input-output approach capturing direct as well as indirect effects throughout the supply chain. The results calculated on the base of the actual Input-Output Table for Germany exhibit a cumulated loss in GDP of 0.15% due to sanctions in the years 2014 to 2016. Especially export-oriented German sectors with strong backward linkages, such as motor vehicles and machinery, are affected.
11.10.2016 • 44/2016
New look and feel for IWH website
The relaunched website of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association goes live today. After the successful launch of a new corporate design at the beginning of the year, IWH now presents itself also digitally in a new and adjusted way. The redesigned website focuses on IWH’s core issues and provides information tailored to each target group. Due to the responsive design, the new website can be perfectly read and navigated on smartphones and tablets as well.
Read press release
05.10.2016 • 42/2016
International young researchers at IWH
Scientific insights do not stop at national borders and have to be equally accessible for women and men. “Whoever wants to do world-class research has to look beyond his own nose”, says Reint E. Gropp, president of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association. He himself received his PhD and did research in the US for several years.
Read press release
11.08.2016 • 34/2016
2016 stress tests: Italian banks don’t look worse than German large commercial banks
The European Banking Authority today presented the results of the 2016 stress tests. They show that most European banks appear more or less stable. “What worries me is, however, that the Italian banks do not look worse than the large German commercial banks,” says Reint E. Gropp, president of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). “It appears that both Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank would benefit significantly from an increase in equity. The stress test was also missing two crucial points: One, the effect of a long lasting low interest rate environment on banks was not simulated. And second, the test did not take into consideration that many small institutions could fail at the same time. This is not an unlikely scenario, given how small banks in particular struggle with shrinking interest margins,“ says Gropp. Finally, the stress test should not distract from the urgency to solve the problems in the Italian banking system.
Read press release
27.07.2016 • 33/2016
The merger of London Stock Exchange and Deutsche Boerse was reasonable
Shareholders of Deutsche Boerse AG have agreed to merge with London Stock Exchange (LSE). “I appreciate this decision“, says Prof Reint E. Gropp, president of Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). “Europe is in need of a competitive financial center. Especially now, after the Brexit referendum, the arguments for a merger are more convincing than ever.”
Read press release
IWH President: Why London Will Remain Europe’s Most Relevant Financial Center. Three Arguments.
“Despite Great Britain’s referendum London will retain its dominant position as financial center within Europe. This is what we have learned when the Euro was introduced as the uniform currency of Europe but gets even more obvious when we consider London’s location factors: the size of the city, its regulatory environment and the human capital”, states professor Reint E. Gropp, president of Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
FDI, Human Capital and Income Convergence — Evidence for European Regions
This study examines income convergence in regional GDP per capita for a sample of 269 regions within the European Union (EU) between 2003 and 2010. We use an endogenous broad capital model based on foreign direct investment (FDI) induced agglomeration economies and human capital. By applying a Markov chain approach to a new dataset that exploits micro-aggregated sub-national FDI statistics, the analysis provides insights into regional income growth dynamics within the EU. Our results indicate a weak process of overall income convergence across EU regions. This does not apply to the dynamics within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics.