Forecast Dispersion, Dissenting Votes, and Monetary Policy Preferences of FOMC Members: The Role of Individual Career Characteristics and Political Aspects
Using data from 1992 to 2001, we study the impact of members’ economic forecasts on the probability of casting dissenting votes in the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Employing standard ordered probit techniques, we find that higher individual inflation and real GDP growth forecasts (relative to the committee’s median) significantly increase the probability of dissenting in favor of tighter monetary policy, whereas higher individual unemployment rate forecasts significantly decrease it. Using interaction models, we find that FOMC members with longer careers in government, industry, academia, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), or on the staff of the Board of Governors are more focused on output stabilization, while FOMC members with longer careers in the financial sector or on the staffs of regional Federal Reserve Banks are more focused on inflation stabilization. We also find evidence that politics matters, with Republican appointees being much more focused on inflation stabilization than Democratic appointees. Moreover, during the entire Clinton administration ‘natural’ monetary policy preferences of Bank presidents and Board members for inflation and output stabilization were more pronounced than under periods covering the administrations of both George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush, respectively.
Effects of Entrepreneurship Education at Universities
Jena Economic Research Papers, Nr. 2012-025,
This study analyzes the impact of entrepreneurship education at universities on the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the short-term (immediately after graduation) and in the long-term (five years after graduation). A difference-in-differences approach is applied that relates changes in entrepreneurial intentions to changes in the attendance of entrepreneurship classes in the same period. To account for a potential bias due to self-selection into entrepreneurship classes, only individuals having no prior entrepreneurial intentions are analyzed. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of entrepreneurship education on students’ intentions to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the long-term but a discouraging effect on their intentions in the short-term. These results support the conjecture that entrepreneurship education provides more realistic perspectives on what it takes to be an entrepreneur, resulting in ‘sorting’. Overall, the results indicate that entrepreneurship education may improve the quality of labor market matches, the allocation of resources and talent, and increase social welfare. Not distinguishing between short- and long-term intentions may lead to misleading conclusions regarding the economic and social impact of entrepreneurship education.
Effects of Local Public Investment into Infrastructure for Tourism: The Example of Saxony
Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft,
The mass of investments into infrastructure for tourism in the so-called “New States” (Neue Länder) of the Federal Republic of Germany after 1990 was huge. They were aimed to the maintenance and recovery, respectively of competitiveness of traditional destinations, as well as to promote service-oriented structural change in industrial wastelands. A big part of these investments was supported by funds of the so called “Joint Task for Improving the Regional Economic Structure”. We analyse the effects of local public investment into infrastructure for tourism supported by investment grants on the local employment in accommodation and food service activities in the state of Saxony. The results provide evidence for correlations between special types of investment in the time period 2000–2007 and the development of employment in hospitality industry. However, this is subject to some requirements, such as the existence of complementary factors, or an existing regional touristic tradition as well.
Monopolistic Competition and Costs in the Health Care Sector
IWH Discussion Papers,
Competition among health insurers is widely considered to be a means of enhancing efficiency and containing costs in the health care system. In this paper, it is argued that this could be unsuccessful since health care providers hold a strong position on the market for health care services. Physicians exert a type of monopolistic power which can be described by Chamberlin’s model of monopolistic competition. If many health insurers compete with one another, they cannot counterbalance the strong bargaining position of the physicians. Thus, health care expenditure is higher, financing either extra profits for physicians or a higher number of them. In addition, health insurers do not have an incentive to contract selectively with health care providers as long as there are no price differences between physicians. A monopolistic health insurer is able to counterbalance the strong position of physicians and to achieve lower costs.
Banking Integration, Bank Stability, and Regulation: Introduction to a Special Issue of the International Journal of Central Banking
International Journal of Central Banking,
The link between banking integration and financial stability has taken center stage in the wake of the current financial crisis. To what extent is the banking system in Europe integrated? What role has the introduction of the common currency played in this context? Are integrated banking markets more vulnerable to contagion and financial instability? Does the fragmented regulatory framework in Europe pose special problems in resolving bank failures? What policy reforms may become necessary? These questions are of considerable policy interest as evidenced by the extensive discussions surrounding the design and implementation of a new regulatory regime and by the increasing attention coming from academia.
Evaluation of Further Training Programmes with an Optimal Matching Algorithm
IWH Discussion Papers,
This study evaluates the effects of further training on the individual unemployment duration of different groups of persons representing individual characteristics and some aspects of the economic environment. The Micro Census Saxony enables us to include additional information about a person's employment history to eliminate the bias resulting from unobservable characteristics and to avoid Ashenfelter's Dip. In order to solve the sample selection problem we employ an optimal full matching assignment, the Hungarian algorithm. The impact of participation in further training is evaluated by comparing the unemployment duration between participants and non-participants using the Kaplan-Meier-estimator. Overall, we find empirical evidence that participation in further training programmes results in even longer unemployment duration.
Development and consequences of labor market flexibility in Great Britain
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Großbritannien gilt als das Land mit dem am stärksten deregulierten Arbeitsmarkt in Europa. In den vergangenen Jahren wurde durch unterschiedliche institutionelle Maßnahmen – vor allem in den Bereichen der Lohnersatzleistungen, der arbeitsmarktrechtlichen Regelungen sowie des Lohnbildungsprozeßes – ein hoher Flexibilitätsgrad erreicht. Hinsichtlich der Verbreitung unterschiedlicher Beschäftigungsformen entwickelte sich der Trend eindeutig zugunsten von Teilzeitarbeitsplätzen. Dabei läßt die Beschäftigungsveränderung nach Wirtschaftssektoren und Berufsgruppen nicht den Schluß zu, daß es sich lediglich um niedrigqualifizierte und schlecht bezahlte Jobs handelt. Insgesamt ist der Anteil der niedrig entlohnten Arbeitsplätze in Großbritannien mit knapp 20 vH jedoch relativ hoch. Die seit 1993 anhaltende Aufwärtsentwicklung auf dem britischen Arbeitsmarkt geht in erster Linie auf den konjunkturellen Aufschwung zurück. Die Flexibilisierungsmaßnahmen haben allerdings dazu beigetragen, daß die Anpassungsgeschwindigkeit von Beschäftigung und Arbeitslosigkeit an die konjunkturelle Entwicklung zugenommen hat. Bei der Bekämpfung der Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit waren die Erfolge trotz anhaltender Lohnspreizung, arbeitsmarktrechtlicher Deregulierung und einer geringen Lohnersatzquote dagegen gering. Mit einem Anteil von 43 vH Arbeitslosen, die länger als ein Jahr arbeitslos sind, steht Großbritannien vor ähnlichen Problemen wie die meisten anderen europäischen Staaten.
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