Upturn Loses Momentum – World Economic Climate Grows Harsher: Joint Economic Forecast Autumn 2018
The economic upturn in Germany is entering its sixth year, but is losing momentum. This is due to both demand and supply side factors. On the one hand, Germany’s key sales markets have weakened in line with the slowdown in world trade. On the other hand, a growing number of companies are apparently facing production-side bottlenecks, especially in terms of labour and sourcing intermediate goods. This overlaps with problems in the automotive industry related to the introduction of the new World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP), which has clearly impacted gross domestic product (GDP) growth due to the branch’s economic weight. Adjustment problems, however, should be overcome in the course of the winter half year. Stimuli from fiscal policy measures will also take effect as of the beginning of 2019. After 1.7% growth this year, economic output will increase at rates of 1.9% in 2019 and 1.8% in 2020. Employment will continue to expand clearly, although at a slower pace. The number of registered unemployed persons will approach the 2 million-mark by the end of the forecasting horizon. Inflation will pick up from an average rate of 1.8% this year to 2.0% in 2019 and 1.9% in 2020. Despite its expansionary fiscal stance, the German government will continue to post a budget surplus, although this can be expected to fall from 54 billion euros to around 40 billion euros.
15.05.2018 • 11/2018
IWH-Tarif-Check: Im Baugewerbe wird künftig auch real deutlich mehr gezahlt: Starker Anstieg der Tariflöhne, ostdeutsche Beschäftigte holen aber nicht weiter auf
Nach monatelangen Tarifverhandlungen gibt es für die rund 800 000 Beschäftigten im Bauhauptgewerbe einen Schlichterspruch – und die bislang höchste Tariflohnvereinbarung Deutschlands in diesem Jahr: Die Beschäftigten im Tarifgebiet West bekommen zum 1. Mai 2018 5,7% mehr Lohn und insgesamt drei Einmalzahlungen: im November diesen Jahres 250 Euro, im Juni 2019 600 Euro und im November 2019 noch einmal 250 Euro. Im Tarifgebiet Ost steigen die Tariflöhne ab Mai 2018 sogar um 6,6% und im Juni 2019 dann um 0,8%. Dazu kommt eine Einmalzahlung im November 2019 in Höhe von 250 Euro je Beschäftigten. Doch wie viel vom Plus bleibt den Bauarbeitenden wirklich? Das IWH hat die realen Einkommenszuwächse berechnet.
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19.04.2018 • 9/2018
IWH-Tarif-Check: Auch real steigen die Einkommen im öffentlichen Dienst kräftig. Reale Netto-Lohnzuwächse bei den Beschäftigten von Bund und Kommunen in den nächsten Jahren
Der neue Tariflohnabschluss verheißt Positives für die 2,3 Millionen Beschäftigten des öffentlichen Dienstes von Bund und Kommunen: Rückwirkend zum 01.03.2018 erhalten sie 3,2%, ab dem 01.04.2019 weitere 3,1% und zum 01.03.2020 nochmals 1,1% mehr Lohn. Die Beschäftigten bis zur Entgeltgruppe 6 erhalten zudem eine Einmalzahlung von 250 Euro.
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19.04.2018 • 7/2018
Joint Economic Forecast Spring 2018: Germany’s Economic Experts Raise Forecast Slightly
Berlin, 19 April – Germany’s leading economic experts raised their forecasts for 2018 and 2019 slightly in their Spring Joint Economic Forecast released on Thursday in Berlin. They now expect economic growth of 2.2 percent for this year and 2.0 percent for 2019, versus 2.0 percent and 1.8 percent respectively in their autumn forecast. “The German economy is still booming, but the air is getting thinner as unused capacities are shrinking“, notes Timo Wollmershaeuser, ifo Head of Economic Forecasting. Commenting on the new German government’s economic policy, he adds: “It is precisely when the government’s coffers are full that fiscal policy should reflect the implications of its actions for overall economic stability and the sustainability of public finances. The extension of statutory pension benefits outlined in the coalition agreement runs counter to the idea of sustainability.”
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Germany’s Economic Experts Raise Forecast Slightly: Joint Economic Forecast Spring 2018
The German economy continues to boom, but the air is getting thinner. Unused economic capacities are gradually shrinking, leading to a slight loss of economic impetus. The pace of economic expansion nevertheless remains brisk: the upturn in the world economy will continue to stimulate exports; and the domestic economy is also expected to remain buoyant thanks to the exceptionally favourable situation in the labour market. The fiscal measures outlined by Germany’s new government in its coalition agreement can be expected to stimulate demand. Annual average economic output can be expected to rise by 2.2 percent this year and by 2.0 percent in 2019. This represents a 0.2 percentage point increase in the institutes’ assessment of growth in gross domestic product versus their autumn 2017 forecast. Employment will continue to see clear growth, but will be weakened by labour market shortages. At the same time, gross wages can be expected to increase markedly. The inflation rate will also rise gradually from 1.7 percent this year to 1.9 percent in 2019.
Regional, Individual and Political Determinants of FOMC Members' Key Macroeconomic Forecasts
Journal of Forecasting,
We study Federal Open Market Committee members' individual forecasts of inflation and unemployment in the period 1992–2004. Our results imply that Governors and Bank presidents forecast differently, with Governors submitting lower inflation and higher unemployment rate forecasts than bank presidents. For Bank presidents we find a regional bias, with higher district unemployment rates being associated with lower inflation and higher unemployment rate forecasts. Bank presidents' regional bias is more pronounced during the year prior to their elections or for nonvoting bank presidents. Career backgrounds or political affiliations also affect individual forecast behavior.
Progressive Tax-like Effects of Inflation: Fact or Myth? The U.S. Post-war Experience
IWH Discussion Papers,
Inflation and earnings growth can push some tax payers into higher brackets in the absence of inflation-indexed schedules. Moreover, inflation may affect the composition of individuals’ income sources. As a result, depending on the relative tax burden of labour and capital, inflation may decrease or increase the difference between before-tax and after-tax income. However, whether some and if so which percentiles of the income distribution net benefit from inflation via taxation is a widely unexplored question. We make use of a novel dataset on U.S. pre-tax and post-tax income distribution series provided by Pike ty et al. (2018) for the years 1962 to 2014 to answer this question. To this end, we estimate local projections to quantify dynamic effects. We find that inflation shocks increase progressivity of taxation not only contemporaneously but also with some repercussion of several years after the shock. While particularly the bottom two quintiles gain in share, it is not the top but the fourth quintile that lastingly loses.