The Transition to Post-industrial BMI Values among US Children
American Journal of Human Biology,
The trend in the BMI values of US children has not been estimated very convincingly because of the absence of longitudinal data. Our objective is to estimate time series of BMI values by birth cohorts instead of measurement years. We use five regression models to estimate the BMI trends of non-Hispanic US-born black and white children and adolescents ages 2-19 between 1941 and 2004. The increase in BMIZ values during the period considered was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.16; 1.44) among black girls, 0.8 for black boys, 0.7 for white boys, and 0.6 for white girls. This translates into an increase in BMI values of some 5.6, 3.3, 2.4, and 1.5 units, respectively. While the increase in BMI values started among the birth cohorts of the 1940s among black girls, the rate of increase tended to accelerate among all four ethnic/gender groups born in the mid-1950s to early-1960s. Some regional evidence leads to the conjecture that the spread of automobiles and radios affected the BMI values of boys already in the interwar period. We suppose that the changes in lifestyle associated with the labor saving technological developments of the 20th century are associated with the weight gains observed. The increased popularity of television viewing was most prominently associated with the contemporaneous acceleration in BMI gain. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Are there Gender-specific Preferences for Location Factors? A Grouped Conditional Logit-model of Interregional Migration Flows in Germany
IWH Discussion Papers,
The article analyses the question whether women and men differ in their tastes for location factors. The question is answered by quantifying the impact of location characteristics on interregional migration flows across Germany. The analysis is based on a grouped conditional logit approach. We augment the framework by controlling for violation of the independence of irrelevant alternatives assumption and for overdispersion. As a result, we find no differences in terms of direction of impact. However, the regressions confirm gender differences in terms of intensity, particularly regarding regional wage levels and the availability of educational institutions.
Workplace Equipment and Workplace Gap by Gender in East and West Germany
IWH Discussion Papers,
The paper investigates (a) the number and structure of available jobs by gender in East and West Germany, (b) the gap between the supply and demand of jobs by gender in both regions and (c) the reasons for the wider “job gap” in East Germany compared with West Germany. The paper uses data from the Regional National Accounts and the Federal Labor Office. The analysis shows no significant difference in the number of jobs per 1000 persons in working age between East and West Germany. For women, the East German economy offers more jobs. Nevertheless, the gap between labour demand and the supply of jobs is wider in East Germany. This is caused not only by problems concerning the production structure, but also by the significantly higher partizipation rate of women in the labor market. Reasons are the traditional behaviour of East German woman and – compared with West Germany – the considerably lower household income.