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Economies of Scope in European Railways: An Efficiency Analysis
IWH Discussion Papers,
In the course of railway reforms in the end of the last century, national European governments, as well the EU Commission, decided to open markets and to separate railway networks from train operations. Vertically integrated railway companies – companies owning a network and providing transport services – argue that such a separation of infrastructure and operations would diminish the advantages of vertical integration and would therefore not be suitable to raise economic welfare. In this paper, we conduct a pan-European analysis to investigate the performance of European railways with a particular focus on economies of vertical integration. We test the hypothesis that integrated railways realise economies of joint production and, thus, produce railway services on a higher level of efficiency. To determine whether joint or separate production is more efficient we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis super-efficiency bootstrapping model which relates the efficiency for integrated production to a virtual reference set consisting of the separated production technology. Our findings are that in a majority of European Railway companies exist economies of scope.
Liberalization of Electricity Markets in Selected European Countries
Diskussionsbeiträge des Europäischen Instituts für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW), Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Nr. 124,
We look into liberalization issues in the context of the EU Electricity Liberalization. Taking a look at principal issues reveals that the Community Directive 96/92/EC does not really take into account the interdependencies of energy markets. Moreover, third party access is not effectively enforced, particularly not in Germany, where mergers between a major electricity company and the dominant gas company have raised particular issues. Electricity liberalization in Scandinavia is working relatively well. EU accession countries are considered potential electricity exporters in the long run as full restructuring will drive down both energy intensities and electricity intensities. Russia would be wise to quickly become a member country of WTO, not in the least to gain access to Western Europe’s electricity market; the role of Russia so far has been neglected in the discussion of electricity liberalization. Excess capacities in EU-27 can be expected in the medium term. There is considerable doubt that politicians – often with ambitious goals in the field of environmental policy – will allow for a pan-European liberalization of electricity. We also take a closer look at regulatory policy issues.