07.12.2010 • 68/2010
Weiterhin sinkender Energieverbrauch in Mehrfamilienhäusern
Der Energieverbrauch für Raumwärme in Mehrfamilienhäusern ist rückläufig. Das zeigen die aktuellen Ergebnisse des ista-IWH-Energieeffizienz-index für die Abrechnungsperiode 2009. Gegenüber 2006 ist der bundesweite Indexwert von 107 auf 98,5 gesunken. Dies entspricht einem Rückgang des durchschnittlichen Energiebedarfs um rund 13,4 Kilowattstunden je Quadratmeter Wohnfläche (kWh/m2) pro Jahr bzw. um rund –8,9%.
Determinants of Academic-Industry Linkages and Incubator-internal Cooperation Patterns of Incubator Firms: Empirical Evidence from Germany
IWH Discussion Papers,
The article examines cooperation patterns of firms located in German business incubators (BIs) and technology centers. Based on cross-sectional data, the study explores the network activities within the tenant portfolio and the academic-industry linkages of the tenant firms. In this respect, we contribute to the literature on the impact of business incubation by explicitly considering differences regarding cooperation patterns between diversified and specialized incubator facilities. Contrary to common assumptions, we do not find a higher propensitiy for incubator-internal cooperation activities for firms located in specialized BIs. However, firms located in specialized BIs show significantly higher propensity to engage in academic-industry linkages compared to firms located in diversified incubators.
Technologie- und Gründerzentren im Lichte von Diversifizierung versus Spezialisierung
IWH Discussion Papers,
In Germany, a growing tendency can be observed to focus business incubators (BIs) and technology centers and their respective support elements and processes as well as the selection criteria applied by the incubator management on firms from solely one sector or few but complementary sectors and their specific needs and requirements. These are called specialized business incubators (SBIs). Despite the increasing importance of specialization strategies of business incubators as local and regional policy instruments, there are no reliable empirical examinations of the specifics, and advantages in particular, of SBIs compared to more diversified BIs. On the basis of survey-data, that comprises responses from 161 actual firms incubated in 13 diversified BIs and 13 specialized BIs in Germany, this study investigates the mechanisms within the specific context of specialized BIs and their value-added contribution versus the more diversified incubation model. For the first time, this study provides large-scale empirical evidence concerning the effects of adopting a specialization strategy in the context of business incubation.