Measuring the Efficiency of Regional Innovation Systems – An Empirical Assessment
Freiberg Working Papers, Nr. 08-2006,
We measure the efficiency of regional innovation systems (RIS) in Germany by means of a knowledge production function. This function relates private sector Research and Development (R&D) in a region to the number of inventions that have been registered by residents of that region. Two approaches are followed. First, it is assumed that differences in the productivity of private sector R&D between regions affect the slope of the KPF, which represents the marginal productivity of R&D input. The second approach assesses regional differences within the framework of a stochastic frontier knowledge production function. This approach mainly reveals differences with regard to the intercept of the knowledge production function and, therefore, with regard to the average productivity. We compare the results of both approaches and discuss a number of critical issues such as the properties of the distribution of efficiencies, the appropriate size of RIS, and how to deal with the issue of spatial autocorrelation.
The Role of Regional Knowledge Sources for Innovation – An Empirical Assessment
Freiberg Working Papers, Nr. 15-2005,
We investigate the contribution of different inputs, particularly different knowledge sources, on regional patenting output in the framework of a knowledge production function. The knowledge sources included are R&D employment, size of public research institutions by field of research (budget), amount of university external research funds from private firms, public departments, German Science Foundation (DFG), and from other sources. The contribution of these knowledge sources is tested systematically on the level of German districts (Kreise) by including the respective information for the particular region and for adjacent regions. One main finding is that the quality of the university research makes some contribution to regional innovation while the mere size of the universities is unimportant. Differences in the effect on innovative output can be found according to academic disciplines and type of university.
Does East Germany need a new technology policy? – Implications from the functioning of the R&D market after the transformation
IWH Discussion Papers,
Technology policy is a major part of government's efforts in contributing to East Ger-many's economic recovery. However, even a decade after unification East Germany does not produce sufficient technology goods. Thus, the question is whether technology policy is either not suitable or inefficient in tackling East Germany's deficits. A special technology policy for East Germany is justified by the lack of regional networks for technology firms; without a compensating policy East Germany would continue to lag behind West Germany also with respect to incomes. Yet only a few of the policy in-struments applied so far are efficiently dealing with these deficits. Thus, a future technology policy for East Germany should – mainly by the supply of R&D-infrastructure – support implementation of these kinds of networks.
Spillover effects and R&D co-operations - The influence of market structure
IWH Discussion Papers,
This paper examines empirically the role of market structure for the influence of spill-over effects on R&D-cooperations. The results of a microeconometric analysis, based on firm data on innovation, let in general presume that with intensified competition also the influence of spillovers on R&D-cooperation increases. However, competition seems to induce firms to search for effective firm-specific appropriation facilities first. Spillovers that are sufficiently high such that the internalisation effect from R&D-cooperation more than outweighs the competitive effect from research, only arise whenever firms are not able to protect their research results through any appropriation facility. Additionally, there is some evidence that spillover effects may even hinder firms from cooperating in R&D when there is intensive competition on the research stage.