Switching to Good Policy? The Case of Central and Eastern European Inflation Targeters
The paper analyzes how actual monetary policy changed following the official adoption of inflation targeting in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland and how it affected the volatilities of important macroeconomic variables in the years thereafter. To disentangle the effects of the policy shift from exogenous changes in the volatilities of these variables, a Markov-switching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model is estimated that allows for regime switches in the policy parameters and the volatilities of shocks hitting the economies. Whereas estimation results reveal periods of high and low volatility for all three economies, the presence of different policy regimes is supported by the underlying data for the Czech Republic and Poland, only. In both economies, monetary policy switched from weak and unsystematic to strong and systematic responses to inflation dynamics. Simulation results suggest that the policy shifts of both central banks successfully reduced inflation volatility in the following years. The observed reduction in output volatility, on the other hand, is attributed more to a reduction in the size of external shocks.
The Economic Impact of Changes in Local Bank Presence
This study analyzes the economic consequences of changes in the local bank presence. Using a unique data set of banks, firms and counties in Poland over the period 2009–14, it is shown that changes strengthening the relationship banking model are associated with local labour market improvements and easier small and medium-sized enterprise access to bank debt. However, only the appearance of new, more aggressive owners of large commercial banks stimulates new firm creation.
IWH FDI Micro Database
IWH FDI Micro Database The IWH FDI Micro Database (FDI = Foreign Direct...
11.02.2019 • 3/2019
No-deal Brexit would hit the German labour market particularly hard
The United Kingdom leaving the European Union without a deal would have consequences for international trade and labour markets in many countries, including outside Europe. Calculations by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) indicate: More than 600,000 jobs may be affected worldwide, but nowhere as many as in Germany.
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East Germany Rearguard Only investments in education will lead to a further catch-up ...
21.03.2018 • 5/2018
What is holding back the banking union?
The European Commission wants to better regulate and monitor the European banking sector. In many EU Member States, however, the necessary directives are being implemented extremely slowly. Surprisingly, the reasons for this do not lie in politics and banking structures, but in the institutional framework conditions and existing regulations in the Member States, as argued by Michael Koetter, Thomas Krause and Lena Tonzer from the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
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Polen vor der Middle-Income-Trap? Entwicklungsplan bis 2030 soll
den Aufholprozess beschleunigen
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Polen hat seinen Abstand gegenüber den entwickelten Marktwirtschaften Westeuropas seit dem Beginn der 1990er Jahre bis heute gemessen am Pro-Kopf-Einkommen stark verringert. Galt das Land in den ersten zwei Jahrzehnten unter den mittelosteuropäischen Ländern als Vorreiter beim Wirtschaftswachstum, so hat sich das Aufholtempo in den letzten Jahren verlangsamt. Die polnische Regierung reagierte darauf mit einem strategischen Entwicklungsplan („Morawiecki“-Plan), der Maßnahmen und Ziele bis 2030 benennt und Polens Aufholprozess neuen Schwung verleihen soll. Für das wirtschaftsliberale Reformland bedeutet mehr staatlich gesteuerte Wirtschaftsplanung allerdings einen Paradigmenwechsel. Vom Erfolg dieser Strategie hängt es ab, ob Polen den Übergang in die zweite, innovationsorientierte Phase des Aufholprozesses schafft oder längerfristig auf dem bisherigen Niveau zu verharren droht.
Politically Connected Firms in Poland and Their Access to Bank Financing
Communist and Post-Communist Studies,
This paper characterizes politically connected firms and their access to bank financing. We determine that the relationship between political connections and access to long-term bank loans is weaker in Poland than in other emerging economies. The most probable explanation for this result is related to the instability of the political climate in Poland. We find that only certain kinds of political connections, such as recent connections, positively influenced access to bank financing during the sample period from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, we obtain also some evidence that the value of political connections increased during the 2007 crisis period and onward.
Do Local Banking Market Structures Matter for SME Financing and Performance? New Evidence from an Emerging Economy
Journal of Banking & Finance,
This paper investigates the relationship between local banking structures and SMEs’ access to debt and performance. Using a unique dataset on bank branch locations in Poland and firm-, county-, and bank-level data, we conclude that a strong position for local cooperative banks facilitates access to bank financing, lowers financial costs, boosts investments, and favours growth for SMEs. Moreover, counties in which cooperative banks hold a strong position are characterized by a more rapid pace of new firm creation. The opposite effects appear in the majority of cases for local banking markets dominated by foreign-owned banks. Consequently, our findings are important from a policy perspective because they show that foreign bank entry and industry consolidation may raise valid concerns for SME prospects in emerging economies.
On the Twin Deficits Hypothesis and the Import Intensity in Transition Countries
International Economics and Economic Policy,
This article aims to explain the increasing deficits in the trade and current account balances of three post-transition countries–Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland–by testing two hypotheses: the twin deficit hypothesis and increasing import intensity of export production. The method uses co-integration and related techniques to test for a long-run causal relationship between the fiscal and external deficits of three post-transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe. In addition, an import intensity model is tested by applying OLS and GMM. All the results reject the Twin Deficits Hypothesis. Instead, the results demonstrate that specific transition factors such as net capital flows and, probably, a high import intensity of exports affect the trade balance.