Urban Growth in Germany – The Impact of Localization and Urbanization Economies
IWH Discussion Papers,
This study examines the impact of localization and urbanization economies as well as the impact of city size on urban growth in German cities from 2003 to 2007. Although, from a theoretical perspective, agglomeration economies are supposed to have positive impacts on regional growth, prior empirical studies do not show consistent results. Especially little is known about agglomeration economies in Germany, where interregional support policy and the characteristics of the federal system are further determinants of urban growth. The results of the econometric analysis show a U-shaped relationship between specialization and urban growth, which particularly holds for manufacturing industries. We do not find evidence for the impact of Jacobs-externalities; however, city size shows a positive (but decreasing) effect on urban growth.
European Commission, Leibniz Association and IWH Discuss Innovation Related Policy in Transitions Regions
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
On February 17, 2009, the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) and the Leibniz Association (WGL) held the final conference of the EU-project “Understanding the Relationship between Knowledge and Competitiveness in the Enlarging European Union” (U-know) in Brussels. The research dealt with systemic aspects of innovation and knowledge transfer as well as the development of R&D (research and development) and innovation related policy. Thereby, a particular emphasis was put on the challenges facing the new EU member states and East Germany. The research project proved to be very productive with 54 research papers in refereed journals as well as 33 articles in edited volumes.
The aim of the conference was to present and discuss the main results of the U-know project with experts from the industry as well as the political and scientific community. Within four parallel sessions (Enterprises and markets, Public science and industry links, Systems and governance, Role of institutions), research output was presented. Representatives of the EU Commission commented directly on the presentations with a view on policy implications. In a final panel, all participants underlined the increasing importance of education, R&D, and innovation related policy to support the competitiveness of the EU-15 countries as well as the catching-up process of the new EU member states. The conference has raised significant interest both within the scientific community and the EU Commission.
EU Eastern Enlargement and Structural Change: Specialization Patterns in Accession Countries and Economic Dynamics in the Single Market
Diskussionsbeiträge des Europäischen Instituts für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW), Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Nr. 106,
This paper analyses key issues of structural change and specialization patterns in the economies of an enlarged European Union. In all transition countries we observe a shift from the agricultural and industrial sector towards the service sector in terms of employment and productivity; however, in some countries a reindustrialisation drives is observed in a late transition stage. While some countries namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Estonia and Slovenia, have improved their productivity especially in medium-technology-intensive industries and may advance on the technological ladder, others remain unchanged and seem to get locked in labour-intensive industrial sectors. In the context of EU-enlargement, we expect trade creation – going along with a rise of intra-industry trade – and higher FDI-activities. Countries will have to adjust along the logic of comparative advantage, however, technological upgrading and human capital formation are fields in which government can stimulate the direction of comparative advantage. According to the Gerschenkron-hypothesis the accession countries have an “advantage of backwardness. Since accession countries have a low R&D-GDP ratio in the early transition stage rising government expenditures on research and development plus higher education is crucial. We expect the EU-15 countries in general to benefit from enlargement but gains will be asymmetric across countries: economic geography matters. Austria, Germany, the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, Italy and France are likely to profit more than the other members of EU-15. Germany and Austria additionally play a particularly crucial role as origins of FDI. Future research should focus on the speed and the scope of structural adjustment.