The Identification of Regional Industrial Clusters Using Qualitative Input-Output Analysis (QIOA)
Mirko Titze, Matthias Brachert, Alexander Kubis
The 'cluster theory' has become one of the main concepts promoting regional competitiveness, innovation, and growth. As most empirical applications focus on measures of concentration of one industrial branch in order to identify regional clusters, the appropriate analysis of specific vertical relations is developing in this discussion. This paper tries to identify interrelated sectors via national input-output tables with the help of minimal flow analysis (MFA). The regionalization of these national industry templates is carried out with the allocation of branch-specific production values on regional employment. As a result, the paper shows concentrations of vertical clusters in only 27 of 439 German Nomenclature des Unite´s Territoriales Statistiques (NUTS)-3 regions.
Aktuelle Trends: Forschungsintensität Ostdeutschlands hält dem europäischen Vergleich stand
Jutta Günther, Katja Wilde, Marco Sunder
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
20 Jahre Deutsche Einheit - Teil 2 -
Die Europäische Union (EU) hat mit dem Barcelona-Ziel für Forschung und Entwicklung (FuE) eine ebenso umstrittene wie konkrete Messlatte gesetzt: Bis 2010 sollten die FuE-Aufwendungen der EU auf 3% des Bruttoinlandsprodukts (BIP) steigen. In Deutschland betrugen die FuE-Ausgaben im Jahr 2007 rund 2,5% des BIP. Im innerdeutschen Vergleich ist die FuE-Leistung Ostdeutschlands unterlegen, dem europäischen Vergleich hält sie durchaus stand. Gegenüber Tschechien, Ungarn und Polen weist Ostdeutschland insgesamt eine höhere FuE-Intensität auf, obschon Tschechien im Bereich der privaten FuE etwas besser abschneidet.
Determinants of Female Migration – The Case of German NUTS 3 Regions
Alexander Kubis, Lutz Schneider
IWH Discussion Papers,
Our study examines the regional patterns and determinants of migration flows of young women. At the NUTS-3 regional level, i.e. the district level (Kreise), the German internal migration flows of the year 2005 are explored. From descriptive statistics it can be seen that peripheral regions in East Germany face the strongest migration deficit with respect to young women, whereas agglomerations in West Germany but also in the East benefit from an intense migration surplus within this group. An econometric analysis of determinants of regional migration flows gives evidence of the importance of labour market, family-related and educational migration motives. Generally speaking, young women tend to choose regions with good income and job opportunities, in addition they seem to be attracted by regions enabling an appropriate balance between family and career. Furthermore the existence of excellent educational facilities is a significant influence for young women’s migration. This educationally motivated type of migration generates a long lasting effect on the regional migration balance, especially when the educational opportunities in the destination region are associated with adequate career perspectives for high qualified female graduates. In view of considerable losses due to migration, the study shows various options for action. An important course of action is to incorporate policy measures improving regional employment and income opportunities. Secondly, extending vocational and academic offers addressed to women seems to be a suitable way to stimulate women’s immigration. Moreover, enhancing the social infrastructure, which contributes to a satisfactory work life balance, might attract young women or at least reduce the number of them leaving a region.
Spillover Effects of Spatial Growth Poles - a Reconciliation of Conflicting Policy Targets?
Alexander Kubis, Mirko Titze, Joachim Ragnitz
IWH Discussion Papers,
Regional economic policy faces the challenge of two competing policy goals - reducing regional economic disparities vs. promoting economic growth. The allocation of public funds has to weigh these goals particularly under the restriction of scarce financial re- sources. If, however, some region turns out to be a regional growth pole with positive spillovers to its disadvantaged periphery, regional policies could be designed to recon- cile the conflicting targets. In this case, peripheral regions could indirectly participate in the economic development of their growing cores. We start our investigation by defining and identifying such growth poles among German regions on the NUTS 3 administrative level based on spatial and sectoral effects. Using cluster analysis, we determine significant characteristics for the general identification of growth poles. Patterns in the sectoral change are identified by means of the change in the employment. Finally, we analyze whether and to what extent these growth poles ex- ert spatial spillover effects on neighbouring regions and thus mitigate contradictory in- terests in regional public policy. For this purpose, we apply a Spatial-Cross-Regressive- Model (SCR-Model) including the change in the secondary sector which allows to con- sider functional economic relations on the administrative level chosen (NUTS 3).
Universities and Innovation in Space
Michael Fritsch, Viktor Slavtchev
Freiberg Working Papers, Nr. 15-2006,
We investigate the role of universities as a knowledge source for regional innovation processes. The contribution of universities is tested on the level of German NUTS-3 regions (Kreise) by using a variety of indicators. We find that the intensity and quality of the research conducted by the universities have a significant effect on regional innovative output while pure size is unimportant. Therefore, a policy that wants to promote regional innovation processes by building up universities should place substantial emphasis on the intensity and quality of the research conducted there.
Wissenschaftseinrichtungen und regionale Wirtschaftsentwicklung - Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung am Beispiel der Wissenschaftseinrichtungen in der Region Halle -
Martin T. W. Rosenfeld, Diana Roth
IWH Discussion Papers,
Explaining Regional Disparities in Housing Prices across German Districts
Lars Brausewetter, Stephan L. Thomsen, Johannes Trunzer
IZA Institute of Labor Economics,
Over the last decade, German housing prices have increased unprecedentedly. Drawing on quality-adjusted housing price data at the district level, we document large and increasing regional disparities: growth rates were higher in 1) the largest seven cities, 2) districts located in the south, and 3) districts with higher initial price levels. Indications of price bubbles are concentrated in the largest cities and in the purchasing market. Prices seem to be driven by the demand side: increasing population density, higher shares of academically educated employees and increasing purchasing power explain our findings, while supply remained relatively constrained in the short term.