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Innovation and Top Income Inequality
Review of Economic Studies,
In this article, we use cross-state panel and cross-U.S. commuting-zone data to look at the relationship between innovation, top income inequality and social mobility. We find positive correlations between measures of innovation and top income inequality. We also show that the correlations between innovation and broad measures of inequality are not significant. Next, using instrumental variable analysis, we argue that these correlations at least partly reflect a causality from innovation to top income shares. Finally, we show that innovation, particularly by new entrants, is positively associated with social mobility, but less so in local areas with more intense lobbying activities.
Transferability of Skills across Sectors and Heterogeneous Displacement Costs
American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings,
We use rich German administrative data to estimate new measures of skill transferability between manufacturing and other sectors. These measures capture the value of workers' human capital when applied in different sectors and are directly related to workers' displacement costs. We estimate these transferability measures using a selection correction model, which addresses workers' endogenous mobility, and a novel selection instrument based on the social network of workers. Our results indicate substantial heterogeneity in how workers can transfer their skills when they move across sectors, which implies heterogeneous displacement costs that depend on the sector to which workers reallocate.
Vererbung von Arbeitslosigkeit: Wie der Vater, so der Sohn?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Jugendarbeitslosigkeit und mangelnde Chancen sozialen Aufstiegs gehören zu den wichtigsten sozialpolitischen Herausforderungen in vielen Ländern. Die Probleme erweisen sich als so hartnäckig, dass die These naheliegt, sie würden innerhalb der Familien „vererbt“. Eine Studie des IWH und der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg hat jetzt erstmals für Deutschland untersucht, wie lange junge Männer, die als Kinder einen zeitweise arbeitslosen Vater hatten, später selbst arbeitslos gewesen sind. Zudem wurde geprüft, ob die Ursache für die Arbeitslosigkeit der Söhne in der Arbeitslosigkeit der Väter selbst oder in gemeinsamen familiären Faktoren zu suchen ist, die zu einer höheren Arbeitslosigkeit von Vätern und Söhnen führen.
The Social Capital Legacy of Communism-results from the Berlin Wall Experiment
European Journal of Political Economy,
In this paper we establish a direct link between the communist history, the resulting structure of social capital, and attitudes toward spatial mobility. We argue that the communist regime induced a specific social capital mix that discouraged geographic mobility even after its demise. Theoretically, we integrate two branches of the social capital literature into one more comprehensive framework distinguishing an open type and a closed type of social capital. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) we take advantage of the natural experiment that separated Germany into two parts after the WWII to identify the causal effect of social capital on mobility. We estimate a three equation ordered probit model and provide strong empirical evidence for our theoretical propositions.
Social Capital and Migration Preferences - An Empirical Analysis for the Case of the Reunified Germany
Grincoh Working Papers July 2013,
We focus on the relevance of different types of social capital on migration intentions in the context of shrinking regions. On the one hand, formal social capital characterised by weak ties without local roots is supposed to drive selectivity and outmigration. On the other hand, informal social capital stressing strong ties to friends, relatives or neighbours might hinder migration. In our regression results we do not find an effect of shrinking regions on mobility intentions. Thus, living in a shrinking area is by itself not a reason to move away or to invest
less in social capital. However, if an individual considers to move away she reduces her participation in informal and formal networks. Individuals characterised by strong informal ties, i.e. strong relationships to friends, rel atives or neighbours show a significantly lower probability of moving away. And, more qualified types of social capital as participation in local politics or initiatives seem to encourage spatial mobility.