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20.02.2018 • 2/2018
TV boosts entrepreneurial identity
Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in free-market economies – and TV is one channel in transporting and promoting an entrepreneurial identity or ‘culture’, as IWH economist Viktor Slavtchev and his co-author Michael Wyrwich find in a recent study. For their analysis, they compare – for the period after 1990 – the entrepreneurship incidence among the inhabitants of East German regions that had West Ger¬man TV signal prior to 1990 to that of the inhabitants of regions without such a signal.
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TV and Entrepreneurship
IWH Discussion Papers,
We empirically analyse whether television (TV) can influence entrepreneurial identity and incidence. To identify causal effects, we utilise a quasi-natural experiment setting. During the division of Germany after WWII into West Germany with a free-market economy and the socialistic East Germany with centrally-planned economy, some East German regions had access to West German public TV that – differently from the East German TV – transmitted images, values, attitudes and view of life compatible with the free-market economy principles and supportive of entrepreneurship. We show that during the 40 years of socialistic regime in East Germany entrepreneurship was highly regulated and virtually impossible and that the prevalent formal and informal institutions broke the traditional ties linking entrepreneurship to the characteristics of individuals so that there were hardly any differences in the levels and development of entrepreneurship between East German regions with and without West German TV signal. Using both, regional and individual level data, we show then that, for the period after the Unification in 1990 which made starting an own business in East Germany, possible again, entrepreneurship incidence is higher among the residents of East German regions that had access to West German public TV, indicating that TV can, while transmitting specific images, values, attitudes and view of life, directly impact on the entrepreneurial mindset of individuals. Moreover, we find that young individuals born after 1980 in East German households that had access to West German TV are also more entrepreneurial. These findings point to second-order effects due to inter-personal and inter-generational transmission, a mechanism that can cause persistent differences in the entrepreneurship incidence across (geographically defined) population groups.
Television Role Models and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment
SOEPpapers, Nr. 752,
In this paper we study the effect of television exposure on fertility. We exploit a natural experiment that took place in Germany after WWII. For topographical reasons, Western TV programs, which promoted one/no child families, could not be received in certain parts of East Germany. Using an IV approach, we find robust evidence that watching West German TV results in lower fertility. This conclusion is robust to alternative model specifications and data sets. Our results imply that individual fertility decisions are affected by role models or information about other ways of life promoted by media.
11.04.2013 • 13/2013
TV-Konsum weckt Konsumwünsche – Im Tal der Ahnungslosen war man weniger materialistisch
Fernsehkonsum beeinflusst unsere materiellen Präferenzen. Zu diesem Ergebnis kommt eine Untersuchung des Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH). Um den Effekt methodisch einwandfrei identifizieren zu können, machen sich die Autoren der Studie ein einzigartiges natürliches Experiment innerhalb der DDR zunutze. Aufgrund von topographischen Gegebenheiten konnten die Menschen in bestimmten Regionen der DDR wie im Bezirk Dresden kein Westfernsehprogramm empfangen, während es andernorts möglich war. Die Analyse von Umfragedaten des Zentralinstituts für Jugendforschung der DDR aus den Jahren 1988/1989 belegt, dass Bevölkerungsgruppen, die Westfernsehen konsumierten, höhere Ansprüche an Konsum und Einkommen hatten als die Bewohner im Dresdner „Tal der Ahnungslosen“.