IWH FDI Micro Database
IWH FDI Micro Database The IWH FDI Micro Database (FDI = Foreign Direct...
Proximity and the Transfer of Academic Knowledge: Evidence from the Spatial Pattern of Industry Collaborations of East German Professors
Proximity and the transfer of academic knowledge: evidence from the spatial pattern of industry collaborations of East German professors, Regional Studies. Universities can stimulate local economic development, particularly due to collaboration with local industry. Against this background, this study analyses when these interactions are local. Previous research suggests that university–industry linkages are mainly local because of tacit knowledge and the importance of physical proximity. This study provides additional evidence that the spatial pattern of university–industry linkages is a result of a complex matching process of appropriate partners. The results indicate that actors' individual and relational characteristics, institutional factors, and the particular type of knowledge play a role in collaboration. Hence, university–industry collaborations might not be local.
What Determines the Innovative Success of Subsidized Collaborative R&D Projects? – Project-Level Evidence from Germany –
IWH Discussion Papers,
Systemic innovation theory emphasizes that innovations are the result of an interdependent exchange process between different organizations. This is reflected in the current paradigm in European innovation policy, which aims at the support of collaborative R&D and innovation projects bringing together science and industry. Building on a large data set using project-level evidence on 406 subsidized R&D cooperation projects, the present paper provides detailed insights on the relationship between the innovative success of R&D cooperation projects and project characteristics. Patent applications and publications are used as measures for direct outcomes of R&D projects. We also differentiate between academic-industry projects and pure inter-firm projects. Main results of negative binomial regressions are that large-firm involvement is positively related to pa-tent applications, but not to publications. Conversely, university involvement has positive effects on project outcomes in terms of publications but not in terms of patent applications. In general, projects’ funding is an important predictor of innovative success of R&D cooperation projects. No significant results are found for spatial proximity among cooperation partners and for the engagement of an applied research institute. Results are discussed with respect to the design of R&D cooperation support schemes.
Specialization as Strategy for Business Incubators: An Assessment of the Central German Multimedia Center
The literature on business incubators (BIs) mainly discusses findings of incubators that do not restrict themselves to specific sectors (diversified incubators). There is a strong disregard of the possible benefits arising from the concept of a sector-specialized business incubator (SBI), although this concept has become more important in recent years. In Germany, about 19% of the incubators can be characterized as being specialized. Since 1999, nearly one-third of all new BIs in Germany opened with a sector-specific focus. This study attempts to approach this research question by examining the advantages and deficiencies of this concept and to address them with empirical observations from an SBI in the city of Halle (Germany), which has an explicit sector-focus on the media industry (MI). We identify key benefits arising from such an incubator concept: (1) high quality premises and equipment, (2) improvement of service and consultancy offerings and (3) image effects for the location. We also find deficiencies of an SBI especially regarding internal networking activities and promotion of linkages to universities. Furthermore a negative working climate impedes interaction. This study offers implications for firms, incubator managers and local policy-makers who are concerned with the instrument of an SBI.