Fehlende Fachkräfte in Deutschland – Unterschiede in den Betrieben und mögliche Erklärungsfaktoren: Ergebnisse aus dem IAB-Betriebspanel 2018
In the years after the economic crisis, the economic situation of establishments in West and East Germany has improved steadily. At the same time, increased labor market dynamics and a positive trend in total employment can be observed. Also the demand for skilled employees reached a new high of 2.7 million in 2018. Only about 60 percent of the demand could be covered, which is also reflected in a further increase of the so-called non-occupancy quota. With regard to the distribution of this indicator for skilled labor shortages, we observe clear sector- and size-specific differences as well as regional heterogeneity. The quota is particularly high in the construction industry and in agriculture and forestry, with more than half the positions left vacant. A positive correlation between shortages of skilled labor and the use of temporary work, flexible working hours and investments in vocational training and further education is assessed in a multivariate analysis. The structure of formal occupational skill requirements did not change very much over recent years. However, a clear trend towards more flexible work organization can be observed. For example, about one quarter of the establishments offer teleworking. The share of part-time employment is also increasing nationwide, especially in sectors with a higher proportion of women, such as the service industries or the public sector. The share of marginal employment is particularly high in sectors that are characterized by cyclical and/or seasonal demand fluctuations or comparatively unspecific skill requirements – and above-average shortages of skilled labor. In 2018, the proportion of establishments authorized to provide in-house vocational training rose for the first time since 2010 – to 54 percent in Germany. In Eastern Germany, the share is significantly lower at 49 percent. The proportion of authorized establishments that actually train apprentices has been relatively stable at around 50 percent for several years. Both successfully occupied and vacant apprenticeships are distributed very heterogeneously across sectors. The recruitment rate of successful graduates is about three quarters. In establishments with skilled labor shortages, both the training rate and the graduate hiring rate are higher, suggesting that vocational training is already used here as an alternative strategy for recruiting skilled employees. The share of establishments supporting further education of their employees remains stable at about fifty percent for several years, and the proportion of employees participating in training is still about one third. A comparatively higher rate of further education among unskilled employees in establishments with skilled labor shortages indicates that internal resources are being increasingly used here to meet the demand for skilled employees.
Population and labour market
Population and labour market Inhabitants are all people (Germans and foreigners) with permanent residence in federal territory (or in a Land). That does not include ...
Vocational Training at IWH ...
Lohnunterschiede zwischen Betrieben in Ost- und Westdeutschland: Ausmaß und mögliche Erklärungsfaktoren. Ergebnisse aus dem IAB-Betriebspanel 2017
The economic situation in German establishments improved even further in 2017. The development of wages, however, reflects this economic growth only partly. Compared to 1997, the wage differential between large and small establishments increased considerably – with substantially lower wages paid in East Germany in general. The wage differential of about 19 percent between East and West Germany can to some extent be explained in a multivariate analysis (Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition) showing that the main cause for the wage gap is the productivity gap between East German and West German establishments; other structural heterogeneities like sector composition, industrial relations and size structure seem not to contribute to an explanation of this gap. The overall positive economic development in Germany is associated with a further growth in total employment and with increased labor market dynamics, especially regarding employee turnover. Turnover rates, however, are very heterogeneous among sectors, ranging from 23 percent in the accommodation and food service sector and less than five percent in public administration. Also the demand for skilled personnel continued to grow. Yet for the first time, not even two thirds of the posted job vacancies could be filled in 2017. With over fifty percent, this non-occupancy quota is particularly high in the construction industry. Also small and very small establishments face serious recruitment problems. The structure of formal occupational skill requirements did not change very much over recent years, but the increasing use of digital technologies changes everyday job requirements and may lead to a rising workload for employees. Looking at the personnel structure in the German economy, a growing share of atypical employment becomes apparent, especially in form of part-time jobs. The proportion of marginal employment remains relatively stable and is comparatively high in sectors with less specific knowledge requirements and strong cyclical and/or seasonal fluctuations like is the case in accommodation and food service sector or personal services sector. Since 2010, the proportion of establishments authorized to provide in-company vocational training has declined constantly and now accounts for 53 percent of the establishments in Germany. About one half of these establishments do actually train apprentices. The share of vacant apprenticeships further increased in 2017 to about one quarter of all apprenticeships offered, in East Germany even to more than one third. As in recent years, the share of establishments supporting further training of their employees remained stable at about fifty percent and the proportion of employees participating in training is still about one third. In East Germany these figures prove to be slightly higher.
Produktivitätsunterschiede zwischen West- und Ostdeutschland und mögliche Erklärungsfaktoren. Ergebnisse aus dem IAB-Betriebspanel 2016
After several years of prosperity, the economic situation of German establishments improved further in 2016. Though the productivity in East German establishments converged slightly to the West German level, a significant productivity gap between both parts of Germany still remains. Differences in the economic structure can only explain a small part of this persistent gap: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition suggests that the different sector composition, lower exports and lower capital intensity of East German establishments explain only about one-fifth of the backlog. The observed positive economic development is associated with a further increase in firm profitability and total employment in the establishments in both parts of Germany. It is reflected also in a further increase in the demand for skilled personnel. Even though the majority of the demand could be met in 2016, one-third of all offered jobs remained vacant. As in the past, especially establishments in construction and business services as well as very small establishments, particularly in East Germany, faced considerable recruitment problems. The occupational skill requirements increased slightly over time. The proportion of jobs for skilled workers is on average higher in East German establishments than in West Germany, suggesting a higher formal qualification level of employees in East Germany. Looking at the personnel structure, a significant increase in the share of atypical employment, particularly part-time jobs and marginal employment, over the last years become visible. The participation of establishments in vocational training remains relatively stable: about half of the enterprises that are authorized to provide vocational training do actually train apprentices. However, the corresponding fraction in East Germany is significantly lower since the economic crisis. In contrast, the share of vacant apprenticeship positions there is much higher than in West German establishments, pointing to major problems in finding suitable applicants. The share of employees participating in further training is about one third for several years. As in the past workers in low-skilled occupations participate only about half as often in training as employees in qualified jobs.
The Requirement of Qualified Workers in Thuringia until 2015: Forecast and Policy Recommendations
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
We forecast the number of qualified workers required in the German federal state Thuringia until 2015 on the basis of the manpower requirement approach. Disaggregated by types of qualification, this method distinguishes between two sources of recruitment requirements: replacement demand for old workers and expansion demand to reflect structural changes of industry sectors and productivity growth. Both components are calculated from register data on employment covered by social security. Relative to current employment, recruitment requirements vary across occupations. A comparison of recruitment requirements for medium-skilled workers with the structure of vocational training reveals potential mismatch between demand and supply of medium-skilled labor in the near future if the composition of apprenticeship programs remains unchanged. The study closes with policy recommendations to prevent occupational mismatch.
Vielfältigkeit eines Hybridberufes: Mechatronikfacharbeiter nach der Ausbildung
In the period from 2002 to 2004, 302 skilled workers successfully concluded their education as a mechatroniker, microtechnologist, chemical laboratory assistant, physics laboratory assistant or varnish laboratory assistant within the scope of the model project "compound education in new professions of high technology" which was initiated by the Saxonian State Ministry of Economy and Labor. The model project and the scientific monitoring were promoted from means of the European Social Fund and complementary state means of the Free State of Saxony.
Some months after the completion of their education, the graduates were questioned by the scientific monitoring about different aspects concerning the model project and its evaluation, points of interests have for example been:
§ the retrospective assessment of the education and the model project,
§ the estimation of their chances in the job market,
§ the professional whereabouts as well as
§ the evaluation of their knowledge in terms of its suitability for daily use.
In this article, the results of the last both points in the view of the mechatroniker, which are the biggest group in the model project with 180 graduates, are picked out as a central theme. Because the mechatronikers should combine the branches of the mechanics and the electronics in the second part of the result representation the actual operational areas of the former trainee are examined.
ich hätte evtl. einiges anders formuliert: (der Satzbau klingt sonst so eingedeutscht)
The article mainly refers to the last two points. Also, the view is limited to the results of the mechatroniker. Covering 180 graduates, it has been the largest group within the model project.
The intention of the new occupational image of the mechatroniker was a bridging of mechanics and electronics. Therefore, it is examined in the second part of this article, to which extend this bridging is reflected in the actual operational areas of the former trainees.
On the situation on the East and West German market for apprenticeships
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Seit einigen Jahren ist die Lage auf dem Ausbildungsmarkt sehr angespannt. Insbesondere in den neuen Bundesländern ist die Nachfrage nach Lehrstellen regelmäßig höher als das Angebot. In der Vergangenheit konnte dieser regionale Mangel an Ausbildungsplätzen zu einem großen Teil durch den Angebotsüberschuss in den alten Bundesländern und die Mobilität der Auszubildenden aufgefangen werden. Im Ausbildungsjahr 2003/2004 entstand auch in den alten Bundesländern ein Nachfrageüberschuss, sodass sich die Lage im gesamten Bundesgebiet verschärfte. Vor diesem Hintergrund fordern Vertreter verschiedener politischer Institutionen eine Ausbildungsplatzumlage von Betrieben, die keine oder zu wenig Ausbildungsplätze zur Verfügung stellen. Der vorliegende Beitrag dokumentiert die Entwicklung auf dem Ausbildungsmarkt in den letzten Jahren und diskutiert die potenziellen Folgen einer Ausbildungsplatzumlage. Die Analyse legt nahe, dass das unzureichende Angebot an Ausbildungsplätzen vornehmlich auf strukturelle Probleme in den neuen Bundesländern und die verhaltene wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der letzten Jahre zurückzuführen ist. Auf der Nachfrageseite ist ab 2007 aufgrund der demographischen Entwicklung mit einer deutlichen Entspannung zu rechnen. Die Erhebung einer Ausbildungsplatzumlage ist kein ge-eignetes Mittel zur Lösung der Probleme auf dem Ausbildungsmarkt. Neben dem mit der Erhebung der Umlage verbundenen Verwaltungsaufwand könnten Mitnahmeeffekte und die Bemühung der Unternehmen, eine Ausbildungsberechtigung zu umgehen, zu den unerwünschten Folgen einer Ausbildungsplatzumlage zählen.
The situation of apprenticeship places in Germany. Determining factors of openings offered for apprentices
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In den letzten Jahren ging das Angebot an Ausbildungsplätzen in Westdeutschland kontinuierlich zurück. Für das beginnende Ausbildungsjahr wird dort erstmals seit Mitte der 80er Jahre wieder eine Überschußnachfrage nach Lehrstellen erwartet. In Anbetracht der bereits chronischen Lehrstellenknappheit in Ostdeutschland hat sich damit der Problemdruck zusätzlich verschärft. Das insgesamt geringe Angebot an Ausbildungs-plätzen läßt sich im wesentlichen zurückführen auf die schwache wirtschaftliche Wachstumsdynamik und die gestiegenen Kosten der Ausbildung, hauptsächlich bedingt durch eine starke Zunahme der Ausbildungsvergütung. Gesunkene Kosten der Nichtausbildung sowie verändertes Bildungsverhalten und neue Qualifikationsanforderungen dürften diese Entwicklung zusätzlich verstärkt haben. Um ein entsprechendes Ungleichgewicht in den nächsten Jahren zu vermeiden, werden aus ökonomischer Sicht primär drei direkt wirkende Lösungsmöglichkeiten diskutiert: die Einführung einer Ausbildungsumlage, eine bevorzugte Vergabe öffentlicher Aufträge an ausbildende Unternehmen sowie eine Senkung der Ausbildungsvergütung. Aufgrund der damit verbundenen Probleme bei der Ausgestaltung ist eine Umlagelösung zumindest in der derzeitigen wirtschaftlichen Situation als ungeeignet einzustufen. Die Vergabelösung bevorzugt einseitig und ineffizient Unternehmen, die hauptsächlich von öffentlichen Aufträgen leben. Eine Senkung der Ausbildungsvergütung ist dagegen relativ einfach durchführbar und auch angesichts der Tatsache vertretbar, daß die Ausbildungsvergütung in der Vergangenheit überproportional zum tariflichen Einkommen aller Beschäftigten gestiegen ist.