24.06.2016 • 26/2016
UK’s “No” to EU will be costly for both sides
On Thursday 23rd, the British people have decided to leave the European Union (EU) Their vote not to remain in the European community was surprisingly clear. UK’s exit will have both political and economic consequences which are far-reaching for the country itself as well as the rest of Europe. “The reactions of the remaining member states are the crucial key now, especially France’s and Germany’s” says Reint E. Gropp, President of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association.
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03.05.2016 • 20/2016
Are Lacking Structural Reforms in the Financial Sector the Underlying Reason for the German Criticism of the ECB?
The major reason for the intense criticism of the European Central Bank’s (ECB’s) low-interest-rate policy may be the lack of structural reforms in the German banking system. The resulting persistent fragmentation increases the banking sector’s vulnerability to the low-interest-rate environment. Hence, parts of the banking sector, due to their strong ties to politicians, appear to have successfully influenced public opinion against the ECB.
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Buy, Keep, or Sell: Economic Growth and the Market for Ideas
An endogenous growth model is developed where each period firms invest in researching and developing new ideas. An idea increases a firm's productivity. By how much depends on the technological propinquity between an idea and the firm's line of business. Ideas can be bought and sold on a market for patents. A firm can sell an idea that is not relevant to its business or buy one if it fails to innovate. The developed model is matched up with stylized facts about the market for patents in the United States. The analysis gauges how efficiency in the patent market affects growth.
Abnormal Real Operations, Real Earnings Management, and Subsequent Crashes in Stock Prices
Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting,
We study the impact of firms’ abnormal business operations on their future crash risk in stock prices. Computed based on real earnings management (REM) models, firms’ deviation in real operations (DROs) from industry norms is shown to be positively associated with their future crash risk. This association is incremental to that between discretionary accruals (DAs) and crash risk found by prior studies. Moreover, after Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002, DRO’s predictive power for crash risk strengthens substantially, while DA’s predictive power essentially dissipates. These results are consistent with the prior finding that managers shift from accrual earnings management to REM after SOX. We further develop a suspect-firm approach to capture firms’ use of DRO for REM purposes. This analysis shows that REM-firms experience a significant increase in crash risk in the following year. These findings suggest that the impact of DRO on crash risk is at least partially through REM.
07.01.2016 • 1/2016
IWH launches new logo and corporate design
At the turn of the year, the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) – Member of the Leibniz Association launches a new corporate design. A central starting point for this is a new logo which shares characteristic elements of the old logo and reinterprets them.
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R&D Cooperation with Scientific Institutions: A Difference-in-difference Approach
Economics of Innovation and New Technology,
Economists and business managers have long been interested in the impact of research and development (R&D) cooperation with scientific institutions on the innovation performance of firms. Recent research identifies a positive correlation between these two variables. This paper aims to contribute to the identification of the relationship between R&D cooperation with scientific institutions and the product and process innovation performance of firms by using a difference-in-difference approach. In doing so, we distinguish between two different types of scientific institutions: universities and governmental research institutes. For the econometric analyses, we use data from the German Community Innovation Survey. In total, data from up to 560 German service and manufacturing firms are available for the difference-in-difference analyses. The results suggest that R&D cooperation with universities and governmental research institutes has a positive effect on both product innovation and process innovation performance of firms.
Can R&D Subsidies Counteract the Economic Crisis? – Macroeconomic Effects in Germany
During the economic crisis of 2008 and 2009, governments in Europe stabilized their economies by means of fiscal policy. After decades of absence, deficit spending was used to counteract the heavy decline in demand. In Germany, public spending went partially into R&D subsidies in favor of small and medium sized enterprises. Applying the standard open input–output model, the paper analyzes the macroeconomic effects of R&D subsidies on employment and production in the business cycle. Findings in the form of backward multipliers suggest that R&D subsidies have stimulated a substantial leverage effect. Almost two thirds of the costs of R&D projects are covered by the enterprises themselves. Overall, a subsidized R&D program results in a production, value added and employment effect that amounts to at least twice the initial financing. Overall, the R&D program counteracts the decline of GDP by 0.5% in the year 2009. In the year 2010 the effects are already procyclical since the German economy recovered quickly. Compared to the strongly discussed alternative uses of subsidies for private consumption, R&D spending is more effective.
Business Cylce Effects of the 2014 Oil Price Slump
Wirtschaftskammer Österreich: Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter,
The price for crude oil has dropped remarkably since the middle of the year 2014. Business cycle effects of oil price changes depend on whether these are caused by demand or supply side factors. In the present paper, the decrease in oil prices since the middle of the year 2014 is decomposed into demand side and oil-market specific factors. Subsequently, the contribution of the decline in oil prices to the economic development since the third quarter of 2014 and the expected effects until the end of the year 2016 are analyzed using the international business cycle model of the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). The analysis considers both, oil-exporting countries (Russia) as well as oil-importing economies (G7 countries and Austria). Economic activity is stimulated strongest in the United States and Japan, whereas it is remarkably curbed in Russia.
Im Fokus: Sächsische Kooperationsstrukturen im 7. Forschungsrahmenprogramm der Europäischen Union
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Im Bereich Forschung und Entwicklung (FuE) bieten zwischenbetriebliche Kooperationen die Möglichkeit, Spezialisierungsvorteile zu nutzen und Wissen auszutauschen. Für die Entstehung von Innovationen ist insbesondere personengebundenes Wissen wichtig, dessen Ausbreitung jedoch räumlich begrenzt ist. Für die Innovationsdynamik einer Region sind deswegen neben überregionalen Beziehungen auch regionale Kooperationen bedeutsam. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert die Kooperationsstrukturen innerhalb geförderter Verbundprojekte des 7. Forschungsrahmenprogramms der Europäischen Union (EU) für den Zeitraum von 2007 bis 2013. Die Untersuchung richtet sich auf den Freistaat Sachsen. Der Beitrag knüpft an eine Untersuchung aus dem Jahr 2013 an, die zeigte, dass sächsische Akteure in einer bestimmten Art von Förderprogrammen, den Bundesprogrammen, heute vergleichsweise viele Kooperationspartner in räumlicher Nähe wählen. Es zeigt sich, dass es formelle Kooperationen zwischen sächsischen Akteuren auch innerhalb der internationalen Konsortien der Forschungsrahmenprogramme der EU gibt. Damit ist der Grundstein für den Austausch von personengebundenem Wissen gelegt. Aus internationaler Perspektive waren in den angesprochenen Projekten vorwiegend Partner aus Westeuropa beteiligt.