Out-migration and Regional Convergence
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
20 Jahre Deutsche Einheit - Teil 1 -
Since 1989, the migration deficit of East Germany has accumulated to 1.8 million people. Against this background, the contribution analyses the relationship between regional migration and regional growth. From a theoretical point of view, one might find reasons in favour and in opposition to a convergence supporting function of migration. If migrants are taken from the upper tail of the human capital distribution of a poor region, divergence is the probable outcome. If on the other hand people with low human capital endowment move to richer regions, migration might enhance regional convergence.
The empirical analysis how regional migration and convergence are interrelated is performed on the basis of German districts within a period from 1995 to 2006. The concept of ß-convergence is applied and a cross-section model controlling for spatial correlation between the error terms is estimated.
The results indicate convergence on the regional level; East German regions seem to catch up particularly fast. The effect of migration is twofold. Out-migration from poor region is correlated with strong growth in these regions. However, the corresponding migration towards richer region is accompanied with growth in these regions, too. Therefore, the impact of migration on convergence is uncertain. Nevertheless, the outcome is in favour of an aggregate benefit of migration if people move from poor to rich regions.
Does temporary employment influence the workrelated training of low-skilled employees?
IWH Discussion Papers,
Fixed-term contracts are considerd as one of the most popular instruments of labour market flexibility. Although they provide new labour market options for employer and employees, it is argued that they may lead to decreasing investments in human capital. From the theoretical point of view it is not clear wheter a fixed-term contract is a drawback for the participation in work-related training. The paper deals with the influence of fixed-term contracts on work-related training especially for low-skilled workers. Based on the Micro Census data of 2004, we estimate a bivariate probit model for the probability of fixed-term employment and participating in work-related training. This model enables us to control for selection effects that may arise from unobservable factors. From the estimation results we can conclude that holding a fixed-term contract does not mean a systematical disadvantage for the training probability of low-skilled employees.
Who Invests in Training if Contracts are Temporary? - Empirical Evidence for Germany Using Selection Correction
IWH Discussion Papers,
This study deals with the effect of fixed-term contracts on work-related training. Though previous studies found a negative effect of fixed-term contracts on the participation in training, from the theoretical point of view it is not clear whether workers with fixed-term contracts receive less or more training, compared to workers with permanent contracts. In addition to the existing strand of literature, we especially distinguish between employer- and employee-financed training in order to allow for diverging investment patterns of worker and firm. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we estimate a bivariate probit model to control for selection effects that may arise from unobservable factors, affecting both participation in training and holding fixed-term contracts. Finding negative effects for employer-sponsored, as well as for employee-sponsored training, leads us to conclude that workers with fixed-term contracts do not compensate for lower firm investments.
Asset Tangibility and Capital Allocation within Multinational Corporations
IWH Discussion Papers,
We investigate capital allocation across a firm's divisions that differ with respect to the degree of asset tangibility. We adopt an incomplete contracting approach where the outcome of potential debt renegotiations depends on the liquidation value of assets. However, with diversity in terms of asset tangibility, liquidation proceeds depend on how funds have been allocated across divisions. As diversity can be traced back to institutional differences between countries, we provide a rationale for multidivisional decision- making in an international context. A main finding is that multinationals may be bound to go to certain countries when financiers cannot control the capital allocation.
Local Taxes and Capital Structure Choice
International Tax and Public Finance,
This paper investigates the question of taxation and capital structure choice in Germany. Germany represents an excellent case study for investigating the question of whether and to what extent taxes influence the debt-equity decision of firms, because the relative tax burdens on debt and equity vary greatly across communities. German communities levy local taxes on profits and long-term debt payments in addition to personal and corporate taxes on the federal level. A stylized model is presented incorporating these taxes. The model shows that local taxes create substantial incentives for firms to use debt financing. Furthermore, the paper empirically investigates the effect of local business taxes on the share of debt used to finance incremental investments by German firms. I find that local taxes significantly influence the capital structure choice of firms, controlling for a large number of other factors. In an extensive sensitivity analysis the tax effect are found to be robust across several different specifications.