Firm Social Networks, Trust, and Security Issuances
Ming Fang, Iftekhar Hasan, Zenu Sharma, An Yan
European Journal of Finance,
We observe that public firms are more likely to issue seasoned stocks rather than bonds when theirs boards are more socially-connected. These connected issuers experience better announcement-period stock returns and attract more institutional investors. This social-connection effect is stronger for firms with severe information asymmetry, higher risk of being undersubscribed, and more visible to investors. Our conjecture is this social-network effect is driven by trust in issuing firms. Given stocks are more sensitive to trust, these trusted firms are more likely to issue stocks than bonds. Trustworthiness plays an important role in firms’ security issuances in capital markets.
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26.01.2022 • 2/2022
Investment, output gap, and public finances in the medium term: Implications of the Second Supplementary Budget 2021
With the Second Supplementary Budget 2021, the German government plans to allocate a reserve of 60 billion euros to the Energy and Climate Fund. This additional spending is also meant to reduce the macroeconomic follow-up costs of the pandemic. According to the IWH’s medium-term projection, the expenditure is expected to increase output by about 0.5% at the peak of its impact in 2024. “While this macroeconomic effect is welcome, the additional investment will by no means compensate for the lack of investment activity since the beginning of the pandemic,” says Oliver Holtemöller, head of the Department Macroeconomics and vice president at Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). Moreover, the supplementary budget is likely to reduce confidence in the reliability of the debt brake.
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Labor in the Boardroom
Jörg Heining, Simon Jäger, Benjamin Schoefer
Quarterly Journal of Economics,
We estimate the wage effects of shared governance, or codetermination, in the form of a mandate of one-third of corporate board seats going to worker representatives. We study a reform in Germany that abruptly abolished this mandate for stock corporations incorporated after August 1994, while it locked the mandate for the slightly older cohorts. Our research design compares firm cohorts incorporated before the reform and after; in a robustness check we draw on the analogous difference in unaffected firm types (LLCs). We find no effects of board-level codetermination on wages and the wage structure, even in firms with particularly flexible wages. The degree of rent sharing and the labor share are also unaffected. We reject that disinvestment could have offset wage effects through the canonical hold-up channel, as shared governance, if anything, increases capital formation.