In Focus: State is Winner of Recent German Upswing
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In 2006 and 2007, production expanded briskly in Germany. Real disposable incomes of private households, however, were almost stagnant. This article sheds, with help of national accounts data, some light on the reasons for this discrepancy: By far the most important factor is that the share of the general government in the disposable income of the whole economy increased strongly. The share of corporations in the disposable income increased, too. Finally, the deflator for consumption rose by more than the deflator of GDP mainly because of the price hike for imported commodities and energy.
Comparative Study of Multinational Companies in the Enlarged EU - A Technology Transfer Perspective
Conference Proceedings of „Comparing International Competitiveness of Manufacturing Companies in the EU with Special Emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe“,
Our study makes a novel contribution to the analysis of the link between multinational companies' heterogeneity and technological transfer. Thereby, we focus on internal technology transfer i.e. technology flowing from the multinational enterprise to the foreign subsidiary. We estimate the impact of corporate governance, subsidiary objectives, local absorptive capacity, as well as the cultural and geographic distance as potential determinants of internal technology transfer. We control for other observed firm- and industry-specific effects as well as unobserved host-country effects. We test our hypothesis with a firm-level data simultaneously collected from 434 foreign subsidiaries in Poland, Hungary, Estonia, Slovakia and Slovenia in 2002/2003. The evidence seems to indicate that the nature of the parent-subsidiary relationship is subject to the institutional context, subsidiary objectives, and risks involved for the foreign parent. These factors in turn determine the incentives for transferring knowledge to the subsidiary. Foreign subsidiaries' absorptive capacity enhances the intensity of internal technology transfer. In contrast geographic distance seems to limit the extent of technology transfer within the company. Country-of-origin-effects seem not to be statistically relevant for internal technology transfer once we control for observable firm, industry, and unobserved host-country-specific effects.
Challenges for Formal Standardization: the Institutional Reforms 2008 – 2010 Reconsidered.
Standardization Research in Information Technology: New Perspectives,
This study considers the developments in international standardization over the last 20 years, particularly the status of formal standardization as compared with consortium-based industrial standardization. The report shows that the radical reform of the global formal standardization system that started in 2008, prompted by the loss of interest in formal standardization on the part of large corporations and the sometimes less than satisfactory outcomes from consortium-based industrial standardization in terms of competition and anti-trust considerations, has helped to compensate for the declining significance of national formal standardization. This specifically relates to national governments, and is to be regarded as a clearly positive development, from both the economic and the institutional and political points of view. Global public interests are now catered for by internet-supported information markets; in particular, online documentation has also enhanced the transparency of the formal standardization process and provided freedom of access for small and medium sized companies in particular, irrespective of geographical region. Finally, the study shows that the debate that took place in and around the year 2004 between Europe and the USA regarding the path towards the internationalization of formal standardization processes was superfluous, incomplete and even counterproductive, owing to the hardening of the political divisions between the two sides.
Investment and Internal Finance: Asymmetric Information or Managerial Discretion?
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
This paper examines the investment-cash flow sensitivity of publicly listed firms in The Netherlands. Investment-cash flow sensitivities can be attributed to overinvestment resulting from the abuse of managerial discretion, but also to underinvestment due to information problems. The Dutch corporate governance structure presents a number of distinctive features, in particular the limited influence of shareholders, the presence of large blockholders, and the importance of bank ties. We expect that in The Netherlands, the managerial discretion problem is more important than the asymmetric information problem. We use Tobin's Q to discriminate between firms with these problems, where LOW Q firms face the managerial discretion problem and HIGH Q firms the asymmetric information problem. As hypothesized, we find substantially larger investment-cash flow sensitivity for LOW Q firms. Moreover, specifically in the LOW Q sample, we find that firms with higher (bank) debt have lower investment-cash flow sensitivity. This finding shows that leverage, and particularly bank debt, is a key disciplinary mechanism which reduces the managerial discretion problem.
Comply or Explain - Die Akzeptanz von Corporate Governance Kodizes in Deutschland und Großbritannien
Beiträge zum Transnationalen Wirtschaftsrecht,
Die zahlreichen Unternehmenszusammenbrüche, Bilanzskandale sowie der Absturz der Indizes an den Kapitalmärkten zu Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends verstärkten die Diskussion um die Unternehmensführung und -kontrolle in Deutschland und führten schließlich vor nunmehr fast drei Jahren zur Verabschiedung des deutschen Corporate Governance Kodex. Dieser Verhaltenskodex, der sich an börsennotierte Gesellschaften richtet, greift internationale Kritikpunkte an der deutschen Unternehmensverfassung auf und soll somit den Standort Deutschland für ausländische Investoren attraktiver machen und das Vertrauen der Anleger zurückgewinnen. Ob dies gelungen ist, soll in dieser Studie ebenso untersucht werden, wie die Frage, ob und in welchen Bereichen der Kodex mit seinen Anforderungen von den Unternehmen akzeptiert wird...