Revenue Boosting Instruments in Municipal Finance from a Public Choice Perspective
Diamond, J. (ed.), Proceedings. 98th Annual Conference on Taxation, Miami, Florida, November 17-19, 2005 and Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the National Tax Association, Thrusday, November 17, 2005,
German municipalities are currently struggling with growing budget deficits, decreasing revenues, and rising expenditures. We argue that from a public choice perspective local politicians under financial pressure might prefer fiscal instruments that minimize the local voters' resistance and create fiscal illusion. According to Germany, suitable sources of additional revenues include the reallocation of revenues from the local business tax between the levels of government and increased profitability of local public utilities. Revenue Data from 1992 to 2004 indicate that changes in the relative significance of the net local business tax revenues are rather caused by changes in the share of the federal government in the revenues ('Gewerbesteuerumlage') than by changes in the local tax multipliers. Furthermore, we find a significant rise in profits of local public utilities in large German cities.
Prekäre Einkommenslagen in Deutschland: Ein Ost-West-Vergleich von 1996 - 2002
Beitrag zur 4. Nutzerkonferenz des Mikrozensus,
The paper investigates the distribution of income in West and East Germany over the period 1996 to 2002 using data from the respective microcensus. Special emphasis is put on the income distribution of those households and living communities which can be characterized as relatively poor. To single out the possible determinants of relative poorness we use Logit regressions. It turns out that the most important source of relative poorness is related to the number of children living in a household as well as the status of the family.
Municipal companies in Germany: turnover, employment, fields of operation
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Despite the ongoing political and scientific discussion about justification and extent of municipal economic activities, neither official statistics nor surveys of associations or research institutes provide valid data concerning the importance of local public enterprises. The IWH has carried out an analysis of different statistical sources which tries to fill the gap for municipal enterprises and yields the following results: Turnover- and employment shares of (big) companies with municipal shareholding are rather small in Germany. Nevertheless, such enterprises dominate within certain branches (e.g. public utilities) and their importance for the regional economy is particularly in Eastern Germany above-average.