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17.03.2022 • 6/2022
Price shock jeopardises recovery of German economy
Russia’s war in Ukraine is hitting the German economy primarily via an energy price shock, but also by disrupting trade flows and causing general uncertainty. At the same time, however, the economy is receiving a strong boost from the lifting of many pandemic restrictions. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that gross domestic product will increase by 3.1% in 2022. The consumer price index will be 4.8% higher than one year ago. The war affects the East German eco-nomy about as hard as the economy in Germany as a whole.
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11.03.2021 • 8/2021
New wave of infections suspends economic recovery
The lockdown is being eased only slightly in Germany in March 2021, and gross domestic product (GDP) declines significantly in the first quarter of 2021. As vaccination campaigns progress and restrictions are gradually eased, a normalisation of household consumption patterns will likely boost the economy later during the year. The Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) forecasts that GDP will increase by 3.7% in 2021, following a decline of 4.9% in 2020. In East Germany, both the contraction and the rebound are much less pronounced.
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07.03.2019 • 7/2019
German economy will pick up speed only slowly
In winter of 2018/2019, the global economy weakened considerably, mainly due to economic policy risks. In Germany, the economy will pick up speed only slowly. According to IWH spring economic forecast, gross domestic product will increase by 0.5% in 2019. Growth in East Germany will amount to 0.7%.
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13.12.2018 • 21/2018
Economic activity in the world and in Germany is losing momentum
In the second half of 2018, the upturn of the German economy has stalled. Production of the automotive industry declined because of delays in switching production to WLTP compliant cars. Irrespectively of this, the German export business has been weakening since the beginning of the year, since the global economy, burdened by the political uncertainties surrounding trade conflicts, the impending Brexit and the conflict over the Italian budget, was unable to keep up with the high momentum of 2017. “It is to be expected that the less benign external environment will not only dampen exports, but will also impact on companies’ investment and hiring decisions”, says Oliver Holtemöller, head of the Department Macroeconomics and vice president at Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). Gross domestic product is expected to increase by 1.5% in 2018 and by 1.4% in 2019, which is roughly equal to the growth rate of economic capacity in Germany.
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Emissionsrechtemanagement mit dem „CO2-Navigator“
IWH Discussion Papers,
The emission rights management module of the software package “CO2-Navigator“ is a corporate emissions rights management instrument designed to provide an overview of the allocation and transactions of CO2 emission allowances at any time of the calendar year. During the acquisition, the relevant dates, quantities and prices are collected. The daily updated inventory of allowances is also reported.
Based on the current state of the emissions from an installation, an estimate of the allowance coverage for the balance sheet day of the current year is realized, using an emission profile characteristic for the firm. Here, a possible under- or over- coverage is graphically illustrated and quantified. The module is thus a useful tool in the risk management process of emission intensive companies. A possible subsequent investment analysis, e. g. a stochastic investment planning, builds on the data supplied by this module. This paper describes the motivation and technical conception of this instrument.
A Model for the Valuation of Carbon Price Risk
Antes, R.; Hansjürgen, B.; Letmathe, P.; Pickl, S. (Hrsg.), Emissions Trading - Institutional Design, Decision Making and Corporate Strategies (Second Edition),
Modeling the price risk of CO2 emission allowances is an important aspect of integral corporate risk management related to emissions trading. In this paper, a pricing model is developed which may be the basis for evaluating the risk of emission certificate prices. We assume that the certificate price is determined by the expected marginal CO2 abatement costs in the current trade period as well as by the long-term marginal abatement costs. The price risk is modeled on the basis of a mean reversion process. Due to uncertainties about the future state of the environment, we suppose that within one trade period erratic changes in the expected marginal abatement costs may occur leading to shifts in the price level. In addition to the parameter estimation, it is also an objective of this work to modify the mean reversion process so that such abrupt changes in the expected reversion level can be displayed. Because of the possibility of transferring spare allowances to a subsequent period we take into account the fact that the expected long run marginal abatement costs act as a lower limit for the price in the trading period.
Stochastic Income Statement Planning as a Basis for Risk Assessment in the Context of Emissions Trading
Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management,
The introduction of the European emissions trading system means that those enterprises taking part have a new planning risk factor to consider – emissions allowance prices. In this article, we analyse how risk emerging from emissions trading can be considered in the stochastic income statement planning of corporations. Therefore, we explore which planned figures are affected by emissions trading. Moreover, we show an approach that models these positions in a planned profit and loss account, taking into account uncertainties and dependencies. Consequently, this model provides a basis for risk assessment and investment decisions in the uncertain environment of emissions trading.