Industrial Cores in East Germany and Its Interaction with the Surrounding Territories—Findings from Four Case Studies
List Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik,
Subject to this article is how four cases of so called industrial cores have developed in East Germany since 1990. Industrial cores represent former state-owned firms which were regarded as economically viable by the Treuhand. But there was no chance to privatize them in the short run. The case studies show the development prior to and after privatization. A special focus is laid on the interaction between the respective firm and its spatial environment. To sum up: All four firms are still existent. They provide competitive goods and services. Nonetheless, the interaction with the surrounding region differs from case to case. There were spin-offs in all cases. Organizational units previously belonging to the former state owned firms were split up, and became independent firms. In addition, new firms were established. Partly the establishment of new firms was supported directly by—de facto—structural policy measures implemented by the core firms. Partly the new establishments were simply cases of co-location resulting from a prospering regional environment. Taking the four cases, urban areas obviously formed a particularly fertile economic environment.
Economic Growth: The Past, the Present, and the Future
Journal of Political Economy,
“Is there some action a government of India could take that would lead the Indian economy to grow like Indonesia’s or Egypt’s? If so, what, exactly? If not, what is it about the ‘nature of India’ that makes it so? The consequences for human welfare involved in questions like these are simply staggering: Once one starts to think about them, it is hard to think about anything else. (Lucas 1988, 5)”
These words by the Nobel laureate Chicago economist Robert Lucas Jr. summarize why so many great scholars found it hard to “think about anything else” and spent their careers trying to understand the process of economic growth. Economies are complex systems resulting from the actions of many actors. This complexity makes it challenging, but also infinitely interesting, to understand the determinants of economic growth. What are the roles of human capital, fertility, ideas, basic science, and public policy for growth? These are just some of the important questions that were posed by many highly influential studies featured in the issues of the Journal of Political Economy over the years. Indeed, this journal has been the platform to diffuse many of the brilliant ideas and start important debates in the field of economic growth. In this short paper, my goal is to revisit some of those seminal papers, briefly describe some of the more recent contributions, and end with some thoughts about the future direction of the field. The reader should note in advance that the list of work covered here is by no means exhaustive and mostly targets work that has been featured in issues of the JPE.
Television Role Models and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Experiment
SOEPpapers, Nr. 752,
In this paper we study the effect of television exposure on fertility. We exploit a natural experiment that took place in Germany after WWII. For topographical reasons, Western TV programs, which promoted one/no child families, could not be received in certain parts of East Germany. Using an IV approach, we find robust evidence that watching West German TV results in lower fertility. This conclusion is robust to alternative model specifications and data sets. Our results imply that individual fertility decisions are affected by role models or information about other ways of life promoted by media.
Ostdeutsche Transformationsgesellschaft: Zum Fortbestand von Strukturen und Verhaltensweisen
A. Lorenz (Hrsg.), Ostdeutschland und die Sozialwissenschaften. Bilanz und Perspektiven 20 Jahre nach der Wiedervereinigung,
Subject of this contribution is, whether socio-economic structures which have evolved since German Unification in East Germany are still different from those in West Germany or whether they are similar. The findings reveal similarities in terms of fertility behavior and mortality, and educational attainment measured by the proportion of high-school graduates reveals only minor differences. Contrary, the proportion of persons who have a migration background is considerably lower than in West Germany whereas the proportion of mothers full-time employed exceeds the West German average. Net-migration losses in East Germany linked with the echo-effects of postponed births will exert a strong impact on the future potential of population in working age. This in mind, maintaining human capital will be a great future challenge.
Die demographische Entwicklung in Sachsen
K. Hermann (Hrsg.), Sachsen seit der Friedlichen Revolution –Tradition, Wandel, Perspektiven. Schriften des Vereins für Sächsische Landesgeschichte, Bd. 12,
The contribution describes the demographic development of Saxony in a historical perspective, focuses primarily on the fertility and migration behaviour since 1989, and gives an outlook to future trends until the year 2020 and beyond.
Human Capital and Fertility in Germany after 1990: Evidence from a Multi-Spell Model
IWH Discussion Papers,
We analyze the timing of birth of the first three children based on German panel
data (GSOEP) within a hazard rate framework. A random effects estimator is
used to accommodate correlation across spells. We consider the role of human
capital – approximated by a Mincer-type regression – and its gender-specific
effects on postponement of parenthood and possible recuperation at higherorder
births. An advantage of the use of panel data in this context consists in
its prospective nature, so that determinants of fertility can be measured when
at risk rather than ex-post, thus helping to reduce the risk of reverse causality.
The analysis finds evidence for strong recuperation effects, i.e., women with
greater human capital endowments follow, on average, a different birth history
trajectory, but with negligible curtailment of completed fertility.
Von der politischen zur demographischen Transformation: Ostdeutschland am Scheideweg
Empirische und theoretische Analysen aktueller wirtschafts- und finanzpolitischer Fragestellungen,
The composition of population in East Germany has strongly changed since the political transformation process. The development is pushed, apart from the specific fertility and mortality behavior, by a persistent migration loss in the last 20 years. This migration deficit of East Germany has accumulated to 1.9 million people. Against this background, the article analyses the risk of demographic change to the potential regional development.
However, a further drastic decrease in population is probable due to missing births. In a short perspective, the contraction of the employed persons increases the capital intensity and thus the productivity of a region. In the long run, it comes to a lasting decrease of the labour supply. Therefore, the impact of demography on the East German development is uncertain.
Determinants of population development in East and West Germany
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the long run there will be a change of the size and the structure of the german population because of mortality decline and birth rates below the reproduction level. In this projection we analyze the different effects of variations of fertility, mortality and migration flows on the population. We show, that immigration on a realistic level is not able to compensate the deficit of live births, but can alleviate the shrinking and ageing process of the german population. Without pronatalistic measures, higher than present birth rates are not expected. While, in our simulations, immigration and an increase in fertility could potentially stabilize the population size in the west, this will not occur in the eastern part of Germany. There, the net east-west migration leads to an additional population decline.