Research Profiles of the IWH Departments All doctoral students are allocated to one...
The Nasty Gap 30 years after unification: Why East Germany is still 20% poorer than the...
A Market-based Indicator of Currency Risk: Evidence from American Depositary Receipts
IWH Discussion Papers,
We introduce a novel currency risk measure based on American Depositary Receipts(ADRs). Using a multifactor pricing model, we exploit ADR investors’ exposure to potential devaluation losses to derive an indicator of currency risk. Using weekly data for a sample of 831 ADRs located in 23 emerging markets over the 1994-2014 period, we find that a deterioration in the fiscal and current account balance, as well as higher inflation, increases currency risk. Interaction models reveal that these macroeconomic fundamentals drive currency risk, particularly in countries with managed exchange rates, low levels of foreign exchange reserves and a poor sovereign credit rating.
Switching to Exchange Rate Flexibility? The Case of Central and Eastern European Inflation Targeters
FIW Working Paper, Nr. 139,
This paper analyzes changes in the monetary policy in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland following the policy shift from exchange rate targeting to inflation targeting around the turn of the millennium. Applying a Markovswitching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model, switches in the policy parameters and the volatilities of shocks hitting the economies are estimated and quantified. Results indicate the presence of regimes of weak and strong responses of the central banks to exchange rate movements as well as periods of high and low volatility. Whereas all three economies switched to a less volatile regime over time, findings on changes in the policy parameters reveal a lower reaction to exchange rate movements in the Czech Republic and Poland, but an increased attention to it in Hungary. Simulations for the Czech Republic and Poland also suggest their respective central banks, rather than a sound macroeconomic environment, being accountable for reducing volatility in variables like inflation and output. In Hungary, their favorable developments can be attributed to a larger extent to the reduction in the size of external disturbances.
Exchange Rate Regime, Real Misalignment and Currency Crises
Based on 69 sample countries, this paper examines the effect of macroeconomic fundamentals on real effective exchange rates (REER) in these sample countries. Using the misalignment of actual REER from its equilibrium level, we have estimated the factors explaining the extent of currency over- or under-valuation. Overall, we find that the higher the flexibility of the currency regime, the lower is the misalignment. The estimates are robust to different sub-samples of countries. We then explore the impact of such misalignment on the probability of a currency crisis in the next period, indicating the extent to which misalignment could be used as a leading indicator of a potential crisis. This paper thus makes a new contribution to the debate on the choice of exchange rate regime by bringing together real exchange rate misalignment and currency crisis literature.
The Exchange Rate of the Euro Cannot be Explained Fundamentally even Ten Years after the Introduction of the New Currency
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
On first of January 2009, the Euro’s tenth birthday can be celebrated. The introduction of the Euro led to diminishing importance of trade in foreign currency for the Euro-countries. However, a significant part of foreign trade of Germany and other Euro-members is still nominated in foreign currency. Therefore, the external value of the Euro plays a crucial role for the European economy. Since the early depreciation of the exchange rate just after the introduction until 2000, an almost steady increase in the external value of the Euro could be observed. The contribution elaborates on the exchange rate development and tests whether the Euro was following a path as it would be predicted by both, the interest rate parity theory and the purchasing parity theory. Both theoretical approaches are not able to explain the specific valuation figure of the Euro. For the conduct of economic forecasts, it is to conclude that modelling exchange rate developments as random processes can be legitimate. Regarding exchange rate policy, it remains to ask which alternative policy approaches might be better suitable for the European economy.