„Where Have All the Young Girls Gone …?” Regional Analysis of Young Women’s Migration Behavior
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
The study examines the patterns and determinants of migration flows of young women at the age between 18 and 30 years. At the NUTS-3 regional level, i.e. the district level (Kreise), the German internal migration flows of the year 2005 are explored. From descriptive statistics it can be seen that peripheral regions in East Germany face the strongest migration deficit with respect to young women, whereas agglomerations in West Germany but also in the East benefit from an intense migration surplus within this group. The econometric analysis of determinants of regional migration flows emphasizes the importance of economic, family-related and educational migration motives. Generally speaking, young women tend to choose regions with good income and job opportunities. In addition, they seem to be attracted by regions enabling an appropriate balance between family and career. Furthermore, the existence of excellent educational facilities is a significant pull factor regarding young female migration. This educationally motivated type of migration generates an enduring effect on the regional balance of migration, which is especially true if the educational opportunities in the target region are associated with adequate career perspectives for highly qualified female graduates. In terms of recommendations for action, the study underlines the importance of policy measures improving the regional job and income opportunities. Secondly, the upgrading of fields of study mainly chosen by women seems to be a suitable way to stimulate female immigration. Moreover, the enhancement of the social infrastructure, which promotes a satisfactory work life balance, might attract young women or at least reduce the number of them leaving the region.
Where enterprises lead, people follow? Links between migration and FDI in Germany
European Economic Review,
Standard neoclassical models of economic integration are based on the assumptions that capital and labor are substitutes and that the geography of factor market integration does not matter. Yet, these two assumptions are violated if agglomeration forces among factors from specific source countries are at work. Agglomeration implies that factors behave as complements and that the country of origin matters. This paper analyzes agglomeration between capital and labor empirically. We use state-level German data to answer the question whether and how migration and foreign direct investment (FDI) are linked. Stocks of inward FDI and of immigrants have similar determinants, and the geography of factor market integration matters. There are higher stocks of inward FDI in German states hosting a large foreign population from the same country of origin. This agglomeration effect is confined to higher-income source countries.
Determinants of population development in East and West Germany
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the long run there will be a change of the size and the structure of the german population because of mortality decline and birth rates below the reproduction level. In this projection we analyze the different effects of variations of fertility, mortality and migration flows on the population. We show, that immigration on a realistic level is not able to compensate the deficit of live births, but can alleviate the shrinking and ageing process of the german population. Without pronatalistic measures, higher than present birth rates are not expected. While, in our simulations, immigration and an increase in fertility could potentially stabilize the population size in the west, this will not occur in the eastern part of Germany. There, the net east-west migration leads to an additional population decline.
On the employment performance of immigrant workers; An empirical analysis for Switzerland
IWH Discussion Papers,