Kooperation, Vernetzung und Erfolg von Unternehmen - die Biotechnologiebranche
List Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik,
According to theoretical implications the succes of enterprises benefits from co-operation and integration into networks. Enterprises of the biotechnology sector in particular have a high propensity to build up co-operations. Estimations of the growth of firms using co-operation-based and non-co-operation-based factors as independent variables reveal a significantly positive influence of the propensity of co-operation as well as networking. In this regard scientific institutions and universities located in geographical proximity of firms play an important role. From this analysis it can be generalized and concluded, concerning other industries too, that networks emerge automatically under certain conditions. Nevertheless their creation and development should be encouraged, e.g. by efficiency incentives for public research and education of universities as well as an intensification of co-operation and networking between the scientific and the corporate sector. This can promote the technology and human capital transfer.
Innovation cooperation: experiences from East and West Germany
Science and Public Policy,
This paper deals with innovation cooperation as a means to support the ongoing catch-up process of the East German economy. Against prevalent beliefs, it can be shown that East German enterprises are more often involved in innovation co-operation than West German firms, and differences in cooperation partner priorities only reflect the given structural differences between the two regions. While cooperating enterprises in East and West Germany are clearly more innovative than their non-cooperating counterparts, a productivity advantage of these firms is (so far) only observable in West Germany. Reasons for this surprising finding are discussed.
Firm-Specific Determinants of Productivity Gaps between East and West German Industrial Branches
IWH Discussion Papers,
Industrial productivity levels of formerly socialist economies in Central East Europe (including East Germany) are considerably lower than in the more mature Western economies. This research aims at assessing the reasons for lower productivities at the firm level: what are the firm-specific determinants of productivity gaps. To assess this, we have conducted an extensive field study and focussed on a selection of two important manufacturing industries, namely machinery manufacturers and furniture manufacturers, and on the construction industry. Using the data generated in field work, we test a set of determinant-candidates which were derived from theory and prior research in that topic. Our analysis uses the simplest version of the matched-pair approach, in which first hypothesis about relevant productivity level-determinants are tested. In a second step, positively tested hypothesis are further assessed in terms of whether they also constitute firm-specific determinants of the apparent gaps between the firms in our Eastern and such in our Western panels. Our results suggest that the quality of human capital plays an important role in all three industrial branches assessed. Amongst manufacturing firms, networking activities and the use of modern technologies for communication are important reasons for the lower levels of labour productivity in the East. The intensity of long-term strategic planning on behalf of the management turned out to be relevant only for machinery manufacturers. Product and process innovations unexpectedly exhibit an ambiguous picture, as did the extent of specialisation on a small number of products in the firms’ portfolio and the intensity of competition.
The significance of FDI for innovation activities within domestic firms - The case of Central East European transition economies
IWH Discussion Papers,
Foreign direct investment is expected to play a significant role as a multiplier of modern production- and management-know-how in Central East European transition economies. The so-called technology-spillovers are explained through externalities or extra-marketlinkages. In practice they can take place via demonstration effects, labor mobility, supplier contacts, customer contacts or networking activities. However, the empirical study on the example of Hungarian industry shows that foreign owned and domestic firms – mainly due to their strong technological disparities – build virtually separate spheres within the industrial sector. Thus, technology-spillovers do hardly appear as an innovation-stimulating means for domestic companies.
Innovation networks and promotion of original innovation: Problems and solutions for the New Länder, Results of an IWH workshop
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Eine im Vergleich zu Westdeutschland geringe Innovationsleistung der ostdeutschen Unternehmen könnte auch auf eine noch unzureichende Einbindung in Netzwerke begründet liegen. Wenn das jedoch die wesentliche Unvollkommenheit des Marktes für FuE in Ostdeutschland ist, müsste sie doch durch eine problemgerichtete Innovationsförderung ausgeglichen werden. Ist das der Fall?
Innovative Milieux: Advanced Posts of Interpenetration between the Economic System and the Science System
IWH Discussion Papers,
A growing number of governments, political parties, and enterprises set the theme „innovation“ on their agenda and join in the global race to more competitive national economies. In this race the concept of the „innovative milieu“ serves as an important point of orientation and as a political target that, on the first glance, seems to be transferable in concrete political measures. A basic feature of innovative milieux is the quick and easy transfer of knowledge to products in demand. This speed-up in the diffusion of knowledge is not only interesting with respect to the economic advantages but also with respect to science. It is the basic thesis of this paper that innovative milieux represent special cases where the economic system and the science system interpenetrate in an extreme way. Empirical findings show that the actors of innovative milieux have a strong cultural proximity to basic attitudes and behavior within the science system. This relates to the institutionalization of trial and error, the reinforcement of exploratory behavior, the flow of information, and to a special mixture of cooperation and competition. An essential feature of innovative milieux derives from the network relations of its actors. These relations have to be balanced a) to the need to create trust and reduce uncertainty, and b) to the need to stay permeable enough for linkages with new actors from outside. With regard to time innovative milieux have to be conceived from an evolutionary perspective. This involves several steps: Development of prerequisites, consolidation, attraction of labor and enterprises from other regions. From the evolutionary perspective, too, possible factors of preventing or accelerating the „entropic death“ (Camagni 1991) of innovative milieux can be discussed. The exceptional character of innovative milieux has consequences for innovation-oriented political strategies. The self-enforcing dynamics of innovative milieux create a tendency to more economic inequality between regions (core-periphery differences). This is contradictory to political strategies in which innovation-oriented policy is applied to reach an offset between prospering and impoverished regions. In many cases a strategy starting from the assumption of an enduring non-innovative milieu seems to be more realistic and more promising. Further on, the new more direct links between enterprises and research institutes question the current shape of technology transfer institutions. Finally the potential effects of the new trend to encourage the entrepreneurship of research staff on the science system are discussed.