Tracing technological change over long periods in Germany in chemicals using patent statistics.
Iciar Dominguez Lacasa, Hariolf Grupp, U. Schmoch
This contribution deepens the feasibility issues of building state-of-the-art patent indicators with historical patent documents available in electronic form from the German Patent Office since the introduction of the Patent Law for the German Empire in 1877. The paper is divided into two parts: a methodological discussion and a case study on the chemical sector in Germany. The development of the technology sector defined matches remarkably well with stylised facts that institutional analysis in the chemical sector have provided us with so far. Moreover, the possibility of varying the level of aggregation in the analysis of technological areas discloses empirical evidence for the path-dependent development in the chemical sector after the advent of the organic chemistry and its application in the chemical synthesis of dye stuffs. Our findings enhance institutional and historical contributions about technological change in the chemical sector and suggest new research questions for innovation studies.
Institution Building for Regional Policy in Central and Eastern European Countries – Ready for Accession to the EU?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
The contribution investigates the state of institution building for regional policy purposes in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary - candidate countries, which are preparing to become EU member states. In comparison with the situation at the beginning of the 1990s, when regional policy had only little importance in these countries, some progress has been achieved in the field of institution building, primarily at national level. A lot, however, still has to be done to complete this institution building: adaptation of programmes to the requirements of the EU regulations set for structural funds, designation of the management authorities and paying authorities, better coordination between the various central state institutions involved in regional policy, inclusion of regions into the national programming process. The competencies of these latter in the sphere of regional policy, which should be strengthened in the course of administrative reform in all the countries investigated, have not gained a foothold yet. In the accession states there is a need to clarify how the regions could be involved in the process of elaboration and realization of regional policy programmes.
Economic Development in Saxony-Anhalt: empirical results and policy recommendations
Franz Barjak, Peter Franz, Gerhard Heimpold, Martin T. W. Rosenfeld
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Though the basic economic problems are still of the same kind all over East Germany, partially considerable regional differences exist in respect to the conditions for further economic development. Therefore, detailed empirical analyses for the individual Länder and their sub-regions are necessary making economic policy recommendations. The following contribution deals with this task taking Saxony-Anhalt as an example.
A multitude of indicators is used to bring out the specific strengths and weaknesses of the economy of this state (Land) and its sub-regions. The outstanding strength of Saxony-Anhalt are the high private investment outlays which served to build a modern capital stock during the past ten years. Another fundamental strength of the Land are the universities and public research institutions. Besides these unambiguous strengths some ‘ambivalent’ growth factors exist which are characterized by strengths as well as by weaknesses. Such ‘ambivalent’ growth factors are the infrastructure and the situation of important sectors and branches of economic activity. The weaknesses of Saxony-Anhalt’s economic structure find expression especially in its low supply with human capital and entrepreneurial initiative as well as in the few research and development efforts of its firms.
The aforementioned strengths of the Land are reflected insufficiently in its economic output. Consequently some economic policy measures are proposed to bring about an improvement: Amongst other things Saxony-Anhalt should develop a clear idea of its economic development (Leitbild). Such a Leitbild could be related to the Land’s strengths or to the elimination of its major weaknesses. This also would facilitate a concentrated use of the different economic policy instruments. The latter shouldn’t only be concentrated on singular economic growth factors but also spatially, on the economically stronger sub-regions, as this can lead to larger growth effects for the entire Land. The good provision with public research institutions in Saxony-Anhalt should be used to bring about an improvement of the economic structure to a larger extent than until now. This could be done for example by means of a further strengthening of applied research vs. basic research, possibly via orienting the public research more towards the existing branches of economic activity. Finally, the Land should intensify its efforts to increase the entrepreneurial initiative in Saxony-Anhalt, e. g. by means of introducing courses in economics in its schools.
Effects of the new vote weighting system at EU Council of Ministers on structural fond resources for new members
Martina Kämpfe, Johannes Stephan
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
At the recent Nice summit, the EU council of ministers decided on institutional adjustments for the European Union. Such reforms are of particular importance for an enlarged European Union in which up to 27 new members could participate. Amongst the reforms, two decisive changes concern the distribution of votes in an enlarged council and additional conditions which will be attached to majority decisions.
This redistribution of power within the council will effect in particular economic issues, as e.g. the size and distribution of structural funds budgets to be expected upon admittance as EU-member states. Such effects can be estimated by use of models of probability of coalition-building. The model used here predicts that the budget for structural funds for the ten accession countries will be lower than would have been under the old voting power regime. This highlights that the accession group in Central East Europe lost relative voting power via coalitions in comparison to the voting regime prior to Nice. Solely Poland enjoyed an increase in voting power which also suggests an increase in budgets Poland can now expect to receive in the framework of EU structural funds policy.