Labor Market Power and the Distorting Effects of International Trade
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
This article examines how final product trade with China shapes and interacts with labor market imperfections that create market power in labor markets and prevent an efficient market outcome. I develop a framework for measuring such labor market power distortions in monetary terms and document large degrees of these distortions in Germany's manufacturing sector. Import competition only exerts labor market disciplining effects if firms, rather than employees, possess labor market power. Otherwise, increasing export demand and import competition both fortify existing distortions, which decreases labor market efficiency. This widens the gap between potential and realized output and thus diminishes classical gains from trade.
12.12.2019 • 24/2019
Global economy slowly gains momentum – but Germany still stuck in a downturn
In 2020, the global economy is likely to benefit from the recent thaw in trade disputes. Germany’s manufacturing sector, however, will recover only slowly. “In 2020, the German economy will probably grow at a rate of 1.1%, and adjusted for the unusually high number of working days the growth rate will only be 0.7%”, says Oliver Holtemöller, head of the Department Macroeconomics and vice president at Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH). With an estimated growth rate of 1.3%, production in East Germany will outpace total German production growth.
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What Drives the Commodity-Sovereign-Risk-Dependence in Emerging Market Economies?
IWH Discussion Papers,
Using daily data for 34 emerging markets in the period 1994-2016, we find robust evidence that higher export commodity prices are associated with higher sovereign bond returns (indicating lower sovereign risk). The economic effect is especially pronounced for heavy commodity exporters. Examining the drivers, we find, first, that commodity-dependence is higher for countries that export large volumes of volatile commodities and that the effect increases in times of recessions, high inflation, and expansionary U.S. monetary policy. Second, the importance of raw material prices for sovereign financing can likely be mitigated if a country improves institutions and tax systems, attracts FDI inflows, invests in manufacturing, machinery and infrastructure, builds up reserve assets and opens capital and trade accounts. Third, the concentration of commodities within a country’s portfolio, its government indebtedness or amount of received development assistance appear to be only of secondary importance for commodity-dependence.
Beschäftigungs- und Lohneffekte der deutschen Exportgüterproduktion im Lichte ihrer gestiegenen Importintensität
S. Dullien et al. (Hrsg.), Makroökonomie im Dienste des Menschen. Festschrift für Gustav A. Horn. Schriften der Keynes-Gesellschaft, Band 14. Marburg: Metropolis-Verlag,
Anhand einer Input-Output-Analyse wird gezeigt, dass für die Wertschöpfungsketten der Exportgüterproduktion in Deutschland weder die Daten während des Globalisierungsschubs um die Jahrtausendwende noch die Daten während der Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise und danach den Verlust an Arbeitsplätzen und Einkommen infolge der wachsenden Importdurchdringung der nationalen Produktion belegen können. Im Gegenteil wird gezeigt, dass Deutschland dank seiner Stärke auf den internationalen Märkten von der Auslagerung einzelner Arbeitsschritte und ganzer Produktionsstufen profitiert hat.
05.09.2019 • 18/2019
Downturn in Germany continues
Trade disputes are causing international trade in goods to decline this year. The manufacturing industry in Germany is particularly affected by this. However, a robust labour market is supporting the economy. According to IWH autumn economic forecast, German gross domestic product (GDP) will increase by 0.5% in 2019. At 1%, output growth in East Germany is likely to be significantly higher than in West Germany.
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Members & Research Doctoral Students Annika Backes ; Doctoral thesis project: tba Dmitri Bershadskyy ; Doctoral thesis project: "Experimental Analysis...
13.06.2019 • 12/2019
Weak foreign demand – economic downturn in Germany
In the summer of 2019, uncertainty due to ongoing trade disputes weighs on the global economy. The export-oriented German economy is particularly affected. According to IWH summer economic forecast, gross domestic product is expected to increase by only 0.5% in 2019; the forecast for East Germany is 0.8%. The German labour market remains largely robust despite the economic downturn.
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The CompNet Competitiveness Database The Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet)...