Losing Work, Moving Away? Regional Mobility After Job Loss
LABOUR: Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations,
Using German survey data, we investigate the relationship between involuntary job loss and regional mobility. Our results show that job loss has a strong positive effect on the propensity to relocate. We also analyse whether displaced workers who relocate to a different region after job loss are better able to catch up with non-displaced workers in terms of labour market performance than those staying in the same region. Our findings do not support this conjecture as we find substantial long-lasting earnings losses for movers and stayers and even slightly but not significantly higher losses for movers.
Plant-level Employment Development before Collective Displacements: Comparing Mass Layoffs, Plant Closures, and Bankruptcies
IWH Discussion Papers,
To assess to what extent collective job displacements can be regarded as unanticipated exogenous shocks for affected employees, we analyze plant-level employment patterns before bankruptcy, plant closure without bankruptcy, and mass layoff. Utilizing administrative data covering all West German private sector plants, we find no systematic employment reductions prior to mass layoffs, a strong and long-lasting reduction prior to closures, and a much shorter shadow of death preceding bankruptcy. Our analysis of worker flows underlines that bankruptcies seem to struggle for survival while closures follow a shrinking strategy. We conclude that the scope of worker anticipation of upcoming job loss is smallest for mass layoffs and largest for closures without bankruptcy.
Selektivität, soziale Bindung und räumliche Mobilität - Eine Analyse der Rückkehrpräferenz nach Ostdeutschland
Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie,
Selectivity, social ties and spatial mobility. An analysis of preferences for return migration to East Germany. In the public debate, brain drain from East Germany is supposed to be the most critical trend regarding the development and catching up of the New Länder. Therefore, potential for in- and re-migration has attracted much attention at least in the political context. Our contribution analyses the remigration potential on basis of data from a DFG research project focussing on the re-migration intentions of people formerly emigrated from Saxony-Anhalt. The analysis concentrates on the following aspects: the effect of job market success after emigration; the impact of social ties to the origin and the host region and on the selectivity of re-migration preferences. The econometric results confirm several expected effects: On the one hand an individual’s job market success reduces the intention to return. Likewise, the re-migration preference increases for people whose expectations were disappointed. On the other hand, the relevance of social ties to the origin region for re-migration dispositions is confirmed by the estimations. Yet, regarding selectivity of re-migration preferences in terms of human capital econometric results are somewhat ambiguous.
Ageing and Labour Markets: An Analysis on the effect of worker’s age on productivity, innovation and mobility
Technische Universität Dresden. Dissertation,
The present study analyses the labour market effect of workers’ ageing. Explicitly, the impact of age on productivity and wages, on innovation as well as on mobility is explored empirically. The econometric analyses are based on firm and employment data from the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) and, thus, refer to the labour market of Germany. Regarding the productivity and wage effects of age the econometric results confirm a positive correlation between firm productivity and the share of middle-aged employees (41-50 years old) within the manufacturing sector. Hence, the results provide evidence of an inverted u-shaped age-productivity profile in this sector also found for other countries. Furthermore, age-wage and age-productivity profiles seem to follow unequal patterns. Compared to the group of the 15-30 and the 51 and above years old workers the group of middle-aged employees earn less than a productivity based wage scheme would require. In terms of age effects on innovativeness the micro-econometric analysis again reveals an inverted u-shaped profile. Workers aged around 40 years seem to act as key driver for innovation activities within firms. An additional finding concerns the impact of age diversity on innovation. The expected positive effect of a heterogeneous age structure is not confirmed by the data. With respect to labour market mobility results are in favour of a negative correlation between age and job mobility either in terms of changing professions or firms. The estimation of a multi equation model verifies that expected wages of older workers do not or only marginally increase due to job mobility, so, financial incentives to change jobs are very low. Yet, even after controlling the absent wage incentive older employees still remain more immobile than younger workers. Altogether, these results should not only be of academic interest but also informative for actors on the firm and the governmental level. Both sides are asked to cope with the challenges of demographic change. Only by maintaining productivity and innovativeness until old ages the necessary resources can be generated to preserve an economy’s prosperity even if the share of non-active population is increasing by demographic developments. Secondly, enhancing productivity is essential to ensure employability of older persons and to sustain the size of workforce even in the circumstances of an ageing economy.
Seniorität, spezifisches Kapital und Beschäftigungsmobilität - Warum Ältere seltener wechseln
T. Salzmann, V. Skirbekk, M. Weiberg (Hrsg.), Wirtschaftspolitische Herausforderungen des demografischen Wandels,
The analysis focuses on the relationship of ageing and labour mobility. We answer the questions if i) mobility is wage driven, if ii) older workers are still able to generate wage increases by job switching and if iii) lacking wage incentives can explain the existing mobility gap of older workers. The empirical analysis is limited to labour mobility in terms of changing job or occupation. We estimate a multi equation model known as switching regression model with endogenous switching. The data stem from the IAB employment sample. We firstly show that expected wage increases encourage job switching. Secondly, we find evidence for lower expected wage increases due to job changes for older workers. Thirdly we find that the mobility gap of older workers is only partly attributable to reduced wage incentives of a job switch.
Selectivity, Social Ties and Spatial Mobility – An Analysis of Preferences for Return Migration
IWH Discussion Papers,
In the public debate, the brain drain from East Germany is supposed to be the most critical trend regarding the development and catching-up of the New Länder. Therefore, potential for in- and re-migration has attracted much attention at least in the political context. Our contribution analyses the re-migration potential on the basis of data from a DFG research project focussing on the re-migration intentions of people formerly emigrated from Saxony-Anhalt. The analysis concentrates on the following aspects: the effect of job market success after emigration; the impact of social ties to the origin and the host region and on the selectivity of
re-migration preferences. The econometric results confirm several expected effects: On the one hand an individual’s job market success reduces the intention to return. Likewise, the re-migration preference increases for people whose expectations were disappointed. On the other hand, the relevance of social ties to the origin region for re-migration dispositions is confirmed by the estimations. Yet, regarding selectivity of re-migration preferences in terms of human capital econometric results are somewhat ambiguous.
Demographic Change and Labour Markets: Why are Older Employees less Mobile?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Since older workers are less disposed to change jobs workforce ageing will affect labour mobility in Germany. On the basis of the IAB-Employment Sample (IABS) the contribution analyzes the effect of age on job and occupational mobility. The study focuses on the question whether older workers are less mobile due to the optimal matching quality of their current job which cannot be improved by job switches or whether other factors have to be considered for explaining the age related mobility decline.
Econometric results firstly confirm the significance of expected wage growth for mobility decision across all age groups. Secondly, older workers seem to benefit from wage increase due to a job change less frequently than younger workers. However, this factor explains only a part of the mobility lag. Even after controlling for the wage effect younger workers change jobs more often than older ones.
For this reason the opinion that ageing will impede the labour market adjustments cannot be disabled. If older workers only slightly react on wage signals and do not respond to attractive offers growing firms might face problems to recruit appropriate staff – a trend which could have negative consequences for technological and sectoral changes of the entire economy.