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Centre for Evidence-based Policy Advice
Centre for Evidence-based Policy Advice (IWH-CEP) ...
18.12.2018 • 22/2018
IWH leads large scale EU research project on productivity
Is productivity growth slowing in industrialised countries? And if so, why? From the start of 2019, the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) will be addressing these questions as the coordinator of a new EU project. Economists and statistics experts from nine European partners will collaborate on the three-year project, entitled MICROPROD. With a total budget of just under three million euros, it is the IWH’s largest EU project to date.
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Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions – A Count Model Analysis of Transnational Patents
Most research on R&D internationalisation focuses on comparative analysis of location factors at the national level of analysis. Very little work, however, has taken place in this field for the sub-national regional location behavior of multi-national enterprises (MNE). The paper contributes to the existing research by providing evidence on the determinants of foreign technological activities at the sub-national level for Germany, which hosts the largest share of foreign R&D within the EU27 and features the highest cross-regional dispersion of patented research. Using a pooled count data model, we estimate the effect of various sources for externalities on the extent of foreign technological activity across regions. Particular attention is paid to the role of local knowledge spillovers, technological specialization and diversification. We differentiate foreign and domestic sources of specialisation and account for region and sector-specific influences. This is the first time that the ‘cross-border-ownership’ principle to measure R&D internationalisation is combined with regionalised patent information.
To verify our findings we develop hypotheses. In particular, we expect and find that foreign technological activity is attracted by technologically specialised sectors of regions. In contrast to current empirical work, this effect applies both to foreign as well as domestic sources of specialization, although effects on foreign specialization seem more significant. We expect and find the same for science-industry spillovers. We postulate a negative impact of domestic specialization on foreign technological activities and a strong positive effect from diversificationspillovers, by comparison with specialisation spillovers, but these hypotheses are rejected. We find that the direction of the specialisation effect depends on dominance in the position of domestic firms as well as on the balance of knowledge flows between them and foreign actors.
Technological Activities in CEE Countries: A Patent Analysis for the Period 1980-2009
IWH Discussion Papers,
The aim of this paper is to analyze the technological activities of Central and Eastern European (CEE) economies and to compare them with the technological activities of other world regions. Using data from the EPO World Wide Statistical Database for the period 1980-2009 the analysis is based on counts of priority patent applications over time. In terms of priority patent applications, CEE reduced its technological activities drastically in absolute and per capita terms after 1990. The level of priority patent applications in this world region maintained more recently a stable level below the performance of EU15, South EU and the former USSR. In what concerns technological specialization, the results suggest a division of labor in technological activities among world regions where Europe, Latin America and the former USSR are mainly specializing in sectors losing technological dynamism in the global patent activities (Chemicals and/or Mechanical Engineering) while North America, the Middle East (especially Israel) and Asia Pacific are increasingly specializing in Electrical Engineering, a sector with strong technological opportunities.
Analyse der Patentaktivitäten in den öffentlichen Wissenschaftseinrichtungen des Freistaates Sachsen im Auftrag des Sächsischen Staatsministeriums für Wissenschaft und Kunst (SMWK)
This study analyses patenting activities by public research organizations (PROs) in the Free State of Saxony in the period 2002-2007 in order to shed some light on the strategies of PROs for industrial exploitation of scientific research results as well as on PROs-industry interaction. The analysis is based on published patent applications at the German Patent and Trademark Office (DPMA) in the period 2002-2007. The study shows that in the period of analysis (2002-2007) the number of patent applications by PROs in Saxony has risen almost continuously. Institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and the Technical University of Dresden have played a major role in this development. The results for PROs in Saxony are compared with patenting by PROs located in the states of Thuringia, Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. Overall, the comparative analysis shows positive results for the industrial exploitation of scientific research results by PROs in Saxony. In what concerns the networking of PROs with private companies through co-patenting, there are no significant differences between the PROs of the four states considered. The results suggest that PROs in Saxony could further improve their performance in PROs-industry interaction. These results should however be interpreted with caution since the underlying patent statistics (co-patenting) do not capture all forms of PROs-industry interaction for the industrial exploitation of research results.
Still Divided by Transformation? Characteristic Features of the German Innovation System and the Barriers to Extending it to East Germany
D. Dyker (ed.), Network Dynamics in Emerging Regions of Europe, Imperial College Press,
This paper concentrates on various factors preventing the establishment of an efficient regional innovation system in East Germany. For this purpose in the third section the strengths and weaknesses of the all German innovation system are elaborated by means of patent statistics. The fourth section describes the evolution of the East German innovation system after 1990, lists the most important supportive political measures, and discusses several reasons for deficits in innovative performance. The fifth section concludes and presents suggestions for political intervention.
Spatial Distribution of East German Innovative Competencies: Significant Increase in the Southwestern Hinterland of Berlin and in the Centres of Saxony and Thuringia
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Patent applications constitute an essential indicator for the extent of innovative activities in an economy or region. Due to the fact that innovative activities are in general spatially concentrated, policy makers perceive in this information starting points for a growth-oriented regional policy. Against this background, the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH) in 2004 had examined the spatial distribution of industries, firm networks and innovative competencies in the context of an area-wide study for East Germany. Newly available data for the patent statistics allow for an updating of these results regarding the innovative competencies for the time period from 2000 to 2005. In comparison to the time period between 1995 and 2000, an increase in innovative competencies becomes evident. This growth takes place almost exclusively in regions where innovative competencies are already domiciled. All in all, the growth dynamics of East Germany with regard to patent applications is slightly behind the West German one. The distribution of technological fields, to which the applied patents refer to, remained largely constant during the two observation periods. In the area of bio-technology, electrical engineering and of health care the standing of East Germany has further improved. With regard to political implications, the data should not be used for imposing technology specific support programs. Instead a tax relief for R&D independent of the used technologies seems to be more adequate.
Tracing technological change over long periods in Germany in chemicals using patent statistics.
This contribution deepens the feasibility issues of building state-of-the-art patent indicators with historical patent documents available in electronic form from the German Patent Office since the introduction of the Patent Law for the German Empire in 1877. The paper is divided into two parts: a methodological discussion and a case study on the chemical sector in Germany. The development of the technology sector defined matches remarkably well with stylised facts that institutional analysis in the chemical sector have provided us with so far. Moreover, the possibility of varying the level of aggregation in the analysis of technological areas discloses empirical evidence for the path-dependent development in the chemical sector after the advent of the organic chemistry and its application in the chemical synthesis of dye stuffs. Our findings enhance institutional and historical contributions about technological change in the chemical sector and suggest new research questions for innovation studies.
Regional analysis of East Germany: A comparison of the economic situation of states, districts, and municipalities
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
A decade after the German unification we look at the extent of economic differentiation within East Germany. This is achieved by help of a set of selected statistical indicators for the years 1991 to 1998. Comparisons are drawn a) between the East German jurisdictions and b) between West and East German jurisdictions. On the federal state (Laender) level it can be shown that each state has developped its own specific economic profile. Brandenburg is characterized by a positive net migration (suburban function for Berlin), relatively low unemployment and high GDP values, but relatively low entrepreneurial activities. Saxony has achieved the lowest unemployment, a good endowment with human capital, modern industrial technology, infrastructure, and entrepreneurial activities. Special features of Thuringia consist of a relatively large number of patent applications and a stable industrial base. The economic state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is characterized by low industrial investment, negative net migration, and high unemployment. A special feature of this federal state is the intense investmenr in tourist services. Saxony-Anhalt registers the highest decrease in the numbers of industrial workers between 1991 and 1998 and the highest unemployment. On the other side it shows the highest amount of investment, especially in chemical industry and in mineral oil processing.
On the county level four clusters can be identified by means of a cluster analysis: A “cluster of counties with severe economic weaknesses” with a bias in the regions indutrialized in an early stage, a “cluster with a high human capital potential and suburbanization loss” consisting of 21 cities, a “cluster of counties with good economic results” predominantly surrounding the larger cities, and a “cluster of counties with SME growth potential” concentrating in Thuringia and Saxony.
The results at the city level show that the larger cities above 100.000 inhabitants, especially Dresden and Leipzig, do better than the smaller cities. Jena in Thuringia has specialized as a location for R&D, Zwickau in Saxony as a location for the automobile industry. Altogether the economic differences between the East German federal states, counties, and cities still are less pronounced than the degree of differentiation of their West German counterparts.