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Joint R&D Subsidies, Related Variety, and Regional Innovation
International Regional Science Review,
Subsidies for research and development (R&D) are an important tool of public R&D policy, which motivates extensive scientific analyses and evaluations. This article adds to this literature by arguing that the effects of R&D subsidies go beyond the extension of organizations’ monetary resources invested into R&D. It is argued that collaboration induced by subsidized joint R&D projects yield significant effects that are missed in traditional analyses. An empirical study on the level of German labor market regions substantiates this claim, showing that collaborative R&D subsidies impact regions’ innovation growth when providing access to related variety and embedding regions into central positions in cross-regional knowledge networks.
The Structure and Evolution of Inter-sectoral Technological Complementarity in R&D in Germany from 1990 to 2011
Journal of Evolutionary Economics,
Technological complementarity is argued to be a crucial element for effective R&D collaboration. The real structure is, however, still largely unknown. Based on the argument that organizations’ knowledge resources must fit for enabling collective learning and innovation, we use the co-occurrence of firms in collaborative R&D projects in Germany to assess inter-sectoral technological complementarity between 129 sectors. The results are mapped as complementarity space for the Germany economy. The space and its dynamics from 1990 to 2011 are analyzed by means of social network analysis. The results illustrate sectors being complements both from a dyadic and portfolio/network perspective. This latter is important, as complementarities may only become fully effective when integrated in a complete set of different knowledge resources from multiple sectors. The dynamic perspective moreover reveals the shifting demand for knowledge resources among sectors at different time periods.
Taking the First Step - What Determines German Laser Source Manufacturers' Entry into Innovation Networks?
International Journal of Innovation Management,
Early access to technological knowledge embodied in the industry’s innovation network can provide an important competitive advantage to firms. While the literature provides much evidence on the positive effects of innovation networks on firms’ performance, not much is known about the determinants of firms’ initial entry into such networks. We analyze firms’ timing and propensity to enter the industry’s innovation network. More precisely, we seek to shed some light on the factors affecting the duration between firm founding and its first cooperation event. In doing so, we apply a unique longitudinal event history dataset based on the full population of German laser source manufacturers. Innovation network data stem from official databases providing detailed information on the organizations involved, subject of joint research and development (R&D) efforts as well as start and end times for all publically funded R&D projects between 1990 and 2010. Estimation results from a non-parametric event history model indicate that micro firms enter the network later than small-sized or large firms. An in-depth analysis of the size effects for medium-sized firms provides some unexpected findings. The choice of cooperation type makes no significant difference for the firms’ timing to enter the network. Finally, the analysis of geographical determinants shows that cluster membership can, but do not necessarily, affect a firm’s timing to cooperate.
What Drives Innovation Output from Subsidized R&D Cooperation? — Project-level Evidence from Germany
Using a large dataset of 406 subsidized R&D cooperation projects, we provide detailed insights into the relationship between project characteristics and innovation output. Patent applications and publications are used as measures for the innovation output of an R&D project. We find that large-firm involvement is strongly positively related with the number of patent applications, but not with the number of publications. Conversely, university involvement has positive effects on projects’ innovation output in terms of the number of publications but not in terms of patent applications. In general, projects’ funding as measure of projects’ size is an important predictor of the innovation output of R&D cooperation projects. No significant effects are found for the number of partners as (an alternative) measure of projects’ size, for spatial proximity between cooperation partners, for the involvement of a public institute for applied research, and for prior cooperation experiences. We derive conclusions for the design of R&D cooperation support schemes.
Auswirkungen der aus dem Konjunkturpaket II für das Zentrale Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand (ZIM) bereitgestellten Mittel auf die konjunkturelle Entwicklung. Gutachten im Auftrag des Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)
The ZIM program (Zentrales Innovationsprogramm Mittelstand) is a technologically open program of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology to support small and medium enterprises and Science organizations in their research and innovation activities. It became operative July 1, 2008 and offers three program lines: individual projects, cooperative projects, and networks. In reaction to the global economic crisis the ZIM program was increased for the years 2009 and 2010 – in addition to the regulary scheduled 626 Million – by 900 Million Euro through the Konjunkturpaket II (KP II).
In this study, the analysis of the macroeconomic effects of the ZIM program in Germany has been carried out – first time in the evaluation of federal support programs for research and innovation – by the use of the input output method.
The pdf file includes an english summary with details about the study's results.