Creating Networks by Public Research Subsidies in Saxony?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
It is generally acknowledged that research organizations require public support to perform research and development activities. In this context, projects grants play a continuously increasing role that, particularly, aim at strengthening network relationships among the actors within an innovation system. Given that, the Halle Institute for Economic Research has investigated whether public research subsidies (i.e. research grants) in the Free State of Saxony promote networks and provide the basis for future cooperation activities. Results of this study suggest that research grants in Saxony, given the self-assessment of the supported scientists, are conducive to the establishment of network relationships (including also industry actors) and can further contribute to make a better use of cooperation agreements in the future.
20 years of innovation policy in East Germany – from a pure “survival support” to high-tech subsidy
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
20 Jahre Deutsche Einheit - Teil 2 -
The article uses the occasion of “20 years German re-unification” in order to provide an overview of the range of innovation policy schemes in East Germany with the intention to identify changing patterns or paradigms in its philosophy and priorities over time. In general, innovation policy schemes aim at increasing research and development (R&D) activities of companies in order to strengthen their competitiveness as market incentives for R&D are usually too low (problem of market failure). However, in East Germany in the early 1990s the situation was different. At the very beginning, the transformation process in East Germany was accompanied by innovation policy schemes that aimed at the pure maintenance of industrial research and the stock of R&D personnel since the potential for innovation was at a risk to be eliminated completely. In the late 1990s the intention of innovation policies changed. Instead of financial support primarily for human resources, innovation policy schemes since then focused on the support of cooperation projects between different research entities (companies and scientific organizations) and, later on, also the setup of networks in order to close the economic differences between East and West Germany.
Organization and Financing of Innovation, and the Choice between Corporate and Independent Venture Capital
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,
This paper examines the impact of competition on the optimal organization and financing structures in innovation-intensive industries. We show that as an optimal response to competition, firms may choose external organization structures established in collaboration with specialized start-ups where they provide start-up financing from their own resources. As the intensity of the competition to innovate increases, firms move from internal to external organization of projects to increase the speed of product innovation and to obtain a competitive advantage with respect to rival firms in their industry. We also show that as the level of competition increases, firms provide a higher level of financing for externally organized projects in the form of corporate venture capital (CVC). Our results help explain the emergence of organization and financing arrangements such as CVC and strategic alliances, where large established firms organize their projects in collaboration with external specialized firms and provide financing for externally organized projects from their own internal resources.
Business Incubators in Eastern Germany: Positive Interim Results
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Business incubators (BIs) are local technology and innovation policy measures that have attracted a great deal of attention by cities and municipalities in Eastern Germany. The enthusiasm of local-policy makers has led to a current number of nearly 130 incubator organizations in Eastern Germany. The article is based on a wider research project that focuses on the evaluation of the effectiveness of five BIs in Eastern Germany. In this article, three key issues of BI-effectiveness are concerned: the incubation time of client and graduate companies, the technological competence of supported firms and the share of newly founded firms in the BIs. Empirical results are positive concerning the indicators incubation time and the share of start-ups in the BIs. Deficiencies of the five BIs are found regarding the technological competence of the supported firms. The article concludes with a short outlook on future research questions.