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28.09.2017 • 35/2017
Joint Economic Forecast—Autumn 2017: Upturn Remains Robust—Amid Mounting Tensions
The German economic upturn has gained both in terms of strength and breadth. In addition to consumer spending, external trade and investments are now also contributing to economic expansion. These are the conclusions drawn by the economic research institutes in their autumn report for the German federal government. Whereas the very high economic momentum in the first half of the current year will slow slightly, expansion of economic output this year and next will exceed production capacity growth. As a result, overall capacity utilization will increase, with economic output exceeding potential output. Gross Domestic Product is likely to grow by 1.9 percent this year and by 2 percent in 2018 (calendar-adjusted: 2.2 and 2.1 percent, respectively).
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Subsidized Vocational Training: Stepping Stone or Trap? – Assessing Empirical Effects using Matching Techniques
Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics,
Using replacement matching on the basis of a statistical distance function we try to answer the question of whether subsidized vocational training is related to a negative image effect for the graduates. The results show that young people with equal qualifications acquired during subsidized vocational training are disadvantaged solely due to the kind of education they have received. The probability of finding adequate employment is lower than in the control group. Besides the 'general effect' of support we also find less favorable job opportunities for those who attended 'external' as compared to 'workplace-related' training.
Quality of Work: An Investigation for East and West Germany for the Years 1994 and 2009
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
“Quality of work” – a mainly subjective judgement of employees about their work and the corresponding conditions gained momentum over the last decades. But contrary to quantitative aspects of work and worklife, the term “quality of work” is rather hard to measure and it consists of a mixture of many single indicators related to the worklife of employees. The spectrum of these single indicators range from health considerations up to a flexible management of the work time over a month or a year. The present work contributes to the discussion about the quality of work by introducing additional single indicators into the debate. These are commuting, carreer opportunities within a firm, individual satisfaction with the work income, and a correspondence between formal qualification and the present job. The investigation distinguishes between East and West Germany as well as between age cohorts and the qualification of the interviewed persons. The results are based on the GSOEP for the years 1994 and 2009. Looking at these two years we expect some insights into possible changes in the judgement with respect to the quality of work especially for East German employees shortly after the fall of the wall and nowadays. These insights should help to draw conclusions if East and West German employees are still different in their judgements or if a process of convergence in opions occurred.
Subsidized Vocational Training: Stepping Stone or Trap? An Evaluation Study for East Germany
IWH Discussion Papers,
The aim of this paper is to analyze whether the formally equal qualifications acquired during a subsidized vocational education induce equal employment opportunities compared to regular vocational training. Using replacement matching on the basis of a statistical distance function, we are able to control for selection effects resulting from different personal and profession-related characteristics, and thus, to identify an unbiased effect of the public support. Besides the ‘total effect’ of support, it is of special interest if the effect is stronger for subsidized youths in external training compared to persons in workplace-related training. The analysis is based on unique and very detailed data, the Youth Panel of the Halle Centre for Social Research (zsh).
The results show that young people who successfully completed a subsidized vocational education are disadvantaged regarding their employment opportunities even when controlling for personal and profession-related influences on the employment prospects. Besides a quantitative effect, the analysis shows that the graduates of subsidized training work in slightly worse (underqualified) and worse paid jobs than the adolescents in the reference group. The comparison of both types of subsidized vocational training, however, does not confirm the expected stronger effect for youths in external vocational education compared to workplace-related training.
Germany’s Production of Export Goods: Human Capital Content Slightly Exceeds that of Imports
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the decade before the present, world financial crisis exports out of Germany expanded enormously. This was caused by the growing world demand as well as the internationalization of the national production processes and favoured by the improving price competitiveness. At the same time, against the background of the tertiarisation of the economy, the qualification of employees has increased considerably. In our study, we investigate the changes of labour quality in the production of export goods using the standard open input-output model. Hereby, labour input is measured in terms of different formal qualification levels of the employees. The results are compared with the labour input for imported goods. We find out that the input of high qualified labour per unit of produced export goods exceeds only marginally the comparable input value of the imports. It should be mentioned that the comparison is strongly influenced by the assumption of identical production functions for both Germany and its trading partners.
Aktuelle Trends: Brain Gain und Brain Drain: Hochschul-Bildungswanderung im föderalen Deutschland
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Hochqualifizierte Fachkräfte werden von den Unternehmen oft überregional rekrutiert, sodass gerade unter Akademikern eine hohe Mobilität zu beobachten ist. Aus der Perspektive der Bundesländer, die einen Großteil der Kosten der Akademikerausbildung bestreiten, kann ein hoher Zu- bzw. Abwanderungssaldo eine Schieflage bei der finanziellen Lastenverteilung zur Folge haben. Es liegt auf der Hand, dass einzelne Bundesländer im Ausbildungswesen nur ungern eine Zubringerfunktion für andere übernehmen wollen.
Microeconometric Evaluation of Selected ESF-funded ALMP-Programmes
IWH Discussion Papers,
The study evaluates different ESF-funded labour market programmes by comparing the labour market status at different points in time after the treatment. In order to solve the selection problem we employ a standard matching algorithm with a multi-dimensional distance measure. The effects of the analyzed programmes (wage subsidies, start-up subsidies and qualification measures for recipients of social welfare) are very heterogeneous. It can be observed that the direct integration into the regular labour market provides an advantage for the supported individuals. Its lasting effects, however, strongly depend on the group of persons being supported, the type of treatment and the employers’ financial share.
Evaluation von Maßnahmen der aktiven Arbeitsmarktpolitik mit Hilfe eines iterativen Matching-Algorithmus - Eine Fallstudie über langzeitarbeitslose Maßnahmeteilnehmer in Sachsen
IWH Discussion Papers,
The paper evaluates the effects of two labor market programs in Germany, namely the Job Creation- /Structural Adjustment Scheme and Vocational Training, on the unemployment duration of long term unemployed persons. The study uses data from the Mikrozensus Sachsen. A two step Nearest-Neighbor-Matching is employed to solve the sample selection problem. The first step is the estimation of the participation tendency to obtain potential pairs and to compute their Mahalanobis distances. For the assignment of pairs in the second step two different procedures are used: a standard technique and a new one - the iterative improvement of an initial assignment. This process is superior to the standard matching algorithms in the sense that it allows for a closer match between participants and non-participants. Including additional information about a person’s employment history enables us to eliminate the bias due to unobservables. The impact of participation in a labor market program is evaluated by comparing the unemployment duration between both groups using the Cox Proportional Hazard Model. Overall we find empirical evidence that both participation in Job Creation- /Structural Adjustment Scheme and Vocational Training result in even longer unemployment.