Power Generation and Structural Change: Quantifying Economic Effects of the Coal Phase-out in Germany
In the fight against global warming, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is a major objective. In particular, a decrease in electricity generation by coal could contribute to reducing CO2 emissions. We study potential economic consequences of a coal phase-out in Germany, using a multi-region dynamic general equilibrium model. Four regional phase-out scenarios before the end of 2040 are simulated. We find that the worst case phase-out scenario would lead to an increase in the aggregate unemployment rate by about 0.13 [0.09 minimum; 0.18 maximum] percentage points from 2020 to 2040. The effect on regional unemployment rates varies between 0.18 [0.13; 0.22] and 1.07 [1.00; 1.13] percentage points in the lignite regions. A faster coal phase-out can lead to a faster recovery. The coal phase-out leads to migration from German lignite regions to German non-lignite regions and reduces the labour force in the lignite regions by 10,100 [6300; 12,300] people by 2040. A coal phase-out until 2035 is not worse in terms of welfare, consumption and employment compared to a coal-exit until 2040.
Regional Effects of Professional Sports Franchises – Causal Evidence from Four European Football Leagues
The locational pattern of clubs in four professional football leagues in Europe is used to test the causal effect of relegations on short-run regional development. The study relies on the relegation mode of the classical round-robin tournament in the European model of sport to develop a regression-discontinuity design. The results indicate small and significant negative short-term effects on regional employment and output in the sports-related economic sector. In addition, small negative effects on overall regional employment growth are found. Total regional gross value added remains unaffected.
04.02.2021 • 5/2021
IWH Bankruptcy Update: Wave of bankruptcies in retail and hospitality has yet to materialise as downward trend in statistics continues
The number of reported bankruptcies in Germany fell in January 2021. Furthermore, bankruptcy statistics are anticipated to stay at a low level in coming months, according to the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), which provides monthly statistics on corporate bankruptcies in Germany with its IWH Bankruptcy Update.
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25.01.2021 • 2/2021
High public deficits not only due to the pandemic – Medium-term options for fiscal policy
According to the IWH’s medium-term projection, Germany's gross domestic product will grow more slowly between 2020 and 2025 than before, not only because of the pandemic crisis, but also because the work force will decline. The resulting structural public deficits are, if the legal framework remains unchanged, likely to be higher than the debt brake allows. Consolidation measures, especially if they relate to government revenues, entail economic losses in the short term. “There is much to be said, also from a theoretical point of view, for not abolishing the debt brake, but for relaxing it to some extent,” says Oliver Holtemöller, head of the Department of Macroeconomics and vice president at Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
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07.01.2021 • 1/2021
IWH Bankruptcy Update: Bankruptcies Tick Upward in December
In December 2020 the number of corporate bankruptcies in Germany experienced a noticeable uptick reaching pre-COVID levels. According to the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), which monitors corporate bankruptcies in Germany, similar bankruptcy figures can be expected for January and February of 2021.
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High public deficit not only because of Corona - Medium-term options for action for the state
According to the IWH's medium-term projection, Germany's gross domestic product will grow by an average of ½% in price-adjusted terms in the years to 2025, which is 1 percentage point slower than in the period from 2013 to 2019. This is due not only to the sharp slump in 2020, but also to the fact that the labour force will decline noticeably. Government revenues will be expanding much more slowly than in previous years. Even after the pandemic crisis is overcome, the state budget is likely to have a structural deficit of about 2% relative to GDP if the legal framework remains unchanged, and the debt brake will continue to be violated. Consolidation measures to reduce this deficit ratio to ½ % would push production in Germany below the normal rate of capacity utilization. Simulations with the IWH fiscal policy model show that consolidation on the expenditure side would reduce production by less than consolidation on the revenue side. There is much to be said, also from a theoretical point of view, for not abolishing the debt brake, but for relaxing it to some extent.
03.12.2020 • 24/2020
IWH Bankruptcy Update: Fewer Large Companies Declare Bankruptcy
Following a spike in bankruptcy of large companies, statistics on impacted employees are declining again. The total number of bankruptcies also remains at a low level. Published by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), the IWH Bankruptcy Update provides monthly statistics on corporate bankruptcies in Germany.
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Decentralisation of Collective Bargaining: A Path to Productivity?
IWH-CompNet Discussion Papers,
Productivity developments have been rather divergent across EU countries and particularly between Central Eastern Europe (CEE) and elsewhere in the continent (non-CEE). How is such phenomenon related to wage bargaining institutions? Starting from the Great Financial Crisis (GFC) shock, we analyse whether the specific set-up of wage bargaining prevailing in non-CEE may have helped their respective firms to sustain productivity in the aftermath of the crisis. To tackle the issue, we merge the CompNet dataset – of firm-level based productivity indicators – with the Wage Dynamics Network (WDN) survey on wage bargaining institutions. We show that there is a substantial difference in the institutional set-up between the two above groups of countries. First, in CEE countries the bulk of the wage bargaining (some 60%) takes place outside collective bargaining schemes. Second, when a collective bargaining system is adopted in CEE countries, it is prevalently in the form of firm-level bargaining (i. e. the strongest form of decentralisation), while in non-CEE countries is mostly subject to multi-level bargaining (i. e. an intermediate regime, only moderately decentralised). On productivity impacts, we show that firms’ TFP in the non-CEE region appears to have benefitted from the chosen form of decentralisation, while no such effects are detectable in CEE countries. On the channels of transmission, we show that decentralisation in non-CEE countries is also negatively correlated with dismissals and with unit labour costs, suggesting that such collective bargaining structure may have helped to better match workers with firms’ needs.
06.10.2020 • 19/2020
IWH Bankruptcy Update: Bankruptcies Stabilise at a Low Level; Number of Affected Jobs Remains High
The number of companies declaring bankruptcy in Germany was very low in September, and no significant increase is expected in the coming months. By contrast, the number of jobs impacted by corporate bankruptcies remained elevated in September; monthly layoff figures have increased significantly since the beginning of the year. These are the key findings of the IWH Bankruptcy Update, a monthly monitor of insolvency statistics published by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
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