30.11.2022 • 28/2022
Stricter rules for banks can relieve real estate markets
Exuberant price levels in the German real estate market could further exacerbate an economic crisis. Fiscal instruments exert too little influence to contain this danger, shows a study by the Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
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European Real Estate Markets During the Pandemic: Is COVID-19 also a Case for House Price Concerns?
Michael Koetter, Felix Noth
IWH Policy Notes,
We use a new database on European real estate purchase and rental prices – the IWH European Real Estate Index – to document the relationship between staggered COVID-19 dynamics and real estate prices in 14 EU countries between January 2020 and December 2021. For most countries, we find no statistically significant response of monthly purchase and rental prices due to an increase of regional COVID-19 cases. For the UK we find that more COVID-19 cases depressed both purchase and rental prices significantly, but the economic magnitude of effects was mild during this sample period. In contrast, rents in Italy increased in response to hiking COVID-19 cases, illustrating the importance to consider heterogeneous crisis patterns across the EU when designing policies. Overall, COVID-19 dynamics did not affect real estate values significantly during the pandemic, thereby mitigating potential financial stability concerns via a mortgage lending channel at the time.
European Real Estate Prices
Michael Koetter, Felix Noth
IWH Technical Reports,
Real estate markets are pivotal to financial stability given their dual role as the underlying asset of crucial financial products in financial systems, such as mortgage loans and asset-backed securities, and the primary source of household wealth alike. As such, they also play traditionally a crucial role for the transmission of monetary policy. Imbalances and sudden corrections in real estate markets have been the root cause of many financial crises over the last decades. But whereas some national, often survey-based indicators of real estate prices are provided by central banks and statistical offices, a comprehensive collection of purchase prices, rents, and proxies for the liquidity of European real estate markets is lacking. The IWH European Real Estate Index (EREI) seeks to fill this void for residential property. This technical report describes the gathering and processing of sale and rental prices for properties in 18 European countries. We provide the general scrapeing step in the section before describing country-specific details for each country in separated sub-sections.
Explaining Regional Disparities in Housing Prices Across German Districts
Lars Brausewetter, Stephan L. Thomsen, Johannes Trunzer
IWH Discussion Papers,
Over the last decade, German housing prices have increased unprecedentedly. Drawing on quality-adjusted housing price data at the district level, we document large and increasing regional disparities: Growth rates were higher in 1) the largest seven cities, 2) districts located in the south, and 3) districts with higher initial price levels. Indications of price bubbles are concentrated in the largest cities and in the purchasing market. Prices seem to be driven by the demand side: Increasing population density, higher shares of academically educated employees and increasing purchasing power explain our findings, while supply remained relatively constrained in the short term.
IWH European Real Estate Index
IWH European Real Estate Index The IWH European Real Estate Database is a new data...
Brown Bag Seminar
Brown Bag Seminar Financial Markets Department The seminar series "Brown...
To Rent or not to Rent: A Household Finance Perspective on Berlin's Short-term Rental Regulation
IWH Discussion Papers,
With the increasing concerns that accompany the rising trends of house sharing economies, regulators impose new laws to counteract housing supply scarcity. In this paper, I investigate whether the ban on short-term entire house listings activated in Berlin in May 2016 had any adverse effects from a household finance perspective. More specifically, I derive short-term rental income and counter-factually compare it with long-term rental income to find that the ban, by decreasing the supply of short-term housing, accelerated short-term rental income but did not have any direct effect on long-term rental income. Commercial home-owners therefore would find renting on the short-term market to be financially advantageous.
The Effects of Building Energy Codes in Rental Housing: The German Experience
Claus Michelsen, Sebastian Rosenschon
This paper investigates the effect of building energy codes on housings' real energy consumption. We argue that building codes should have a twofold effect: lower levels of energy consumption after its implementation and decreasing energy requirements over time, because tighter building codes induce technical progress in the construction sector. We find evidence for both aspects. Based on a large and unique sample of energy certificates from Germany, this study is the first that deals with the empirical effects of energy efficiency standards in apartment/rental housing. Moreover, it is the first, which includes different stages of regulation.
Investor Rationality and House Price Bubbles: The Case of Berlin and the German Reunification
Oliver Holtemöller, R. Schulz
German Economic Review,
We analyze the behavior of investors in the Berlin rental apartment house market over the years 1980–2004. Using constant-quality multipliers (price–rent ratios), we reject the hypothesis that multipliers in the market were set in a rational manner. Supported by narrative evidence, we conjecture that investors misjudged the economic effects of the German reunification. To examine this, we employ a stylized structural economic model and analyze the effects of shocks on rational multipliers. It seems that investors confused the reunification with a permanent supply side shock to the economy. By basing their investment decisions on this misjudgement, investors behaved irrationally, but in a very uncertain and unprecedented environment.
Energy Efficient Homes in Germany: Lower Energy Requirement in the East and the South – Results of the ista-IWH-Energy-Efficiency-Index 2007
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
At the latest since the oil crisis in the beginning of the 1970s, energy efficiency of homes became a widely discussed topic. In the past, it were in first line aspects of the scarcity of fossil energy sources that motivated the debate. Nowadays, climate protection is a main goal of the European energy policy. For this purpose, a new instrument was introduced in 2009. Europe-wide, the “Energy Performance Certificate” for buildings presents detailed information on the required energy for heating, warm water and (indirectly) the resulting costs for tenants. This instrument is designed to provide further information for consumers to influence their behavior in favor of energy efficient buildings.
Until now, there is only little information on spatial aspects of the energy efficiency of housing in Germany. This article presents data on the level of Germany’s NUTS2 regions. In our calculations, we include information on more than 2.6 million flats, interpolating it representatively for the total stock of multifamily buildings and considering the regional climate.
The results of the first ista-IWH-Energy-Efficiency-Index indicate large differences between regions. The required energy for housing is much lower in the eastern and southern parts of Germany, compared to the western or northern parts. Explanations can be seen in a different structure of the housing stock (e.g. age of construction, level of refurbishment). Moreover, first analyses of the market structure indicate that owner occupied flats are more efficient in energy requirement than rental flats. Vacancy rates, the duration of occupation of rented flats and the level of regional income play an additional role for the energy efficiency of the regional housing stock.