Macroprudential Policy and Intra-group Dynamics: The Effects of Reserve Requirements in Brazil
IWH Discussion Papers,
This paper examines whether intra-group dynamics matter for the transmission of macroprudential policy. Using novel bank-level data on the Brazilian banking system, we investigate the effect of reserve requirements targeting headquarter banks’ deposit share on credit supply by their municipal bank branches. For identification purposes, we exploit that reserve requirements are adjusted following global economic cycles. Our results reveal a lending channel of reserve requirements for branches whose parent banks are more exposed to targeted deposits. Branch ownership and exposure to internal liquidity are central in explaining the results. Our findings reveal limitations in current macroprudential policy frameworks.
International Banking and Cross-border Effects of Regulation: Lessons from Germany
International Journal of Central Banking,
Supplement 1, March
We analyze the inward and outward transmission of regulatory changes through German banks’ (international) loan portfolio. Overall, our results provide evidence for international spillovers of prudential instruments. These spillovers are, however, quite heterogeneous between types of banks and can only be observed for some instruments. For instance, domestic affiliates of foreign-owned global banks reduce their loan growth to the German economy in response to a tightening of sector-specific capital buffers, local reserve requirements, and loan-to-value ratios in their home country. Furthermore, from the point of view of foreign countries, tightening reserve requirements is effective in reducing lending inflows from German banks. Finally, we find that business and financial cycles matter for lending decisions.
Regulations, institutions and income smoothing by managing technical reserves: international evidence from the insurance industry
Omega, The International Journal of Management Science,
This paper investigates the role of technical reserves in the income smoothing behavior of insurance companies. This is one of the first attempts in the literature to trace such relationship in the insurance industry, especially at a multi-country setting. The experience of 770 insurance firms operating in 87 countries over the period 2000–2009 reveals that there is a significant evidence of income smoothing. The paper also finds that institutional characteristics, e.g., the rule of law, common law legal origin, economic freedom, and regulations relating to technical provisions and supervisory power constrain income smoothing but other factors such as capital requirements, tax deductibility of provisions, auditing, and corporate governance do not have a significant effect.
16.12.2015 • 45/2015
German Economy: Strong domestic demand compensates for weak exports
The upturn of the German economy is expected to gain further momentum as a consequence of strong domestic demand. Real gross domestic product is expected to increase by 1.6% in 2016. Consumer prices are expected to rise by 0.9%. Unemployment is expected to rise slightly because it will take time to integrate refugees into the labour market.
Read press release
Will new IMF-Instrument prevent currency crises?
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
The resent experience with currency crises shows that not only economies with weak fundamentals are hit by crises. After long-lasting discussions of appropriate instruments to reduce the risk for currency crises in emerging market economies, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) presented a new proposal of an instrument: the Reserve Augmentation Line (RAL). This new proposal shows that at the current state such an instrument is not available.
This contribution confronts the RAL proposal with theoretically derived requirements on preventive liquidity instruments. It shows that only limited preventive effects can be expected. The limitation of the instrument to 300 percent of the quota and the unsolved problem of sending negative signals to the market if countries apply for the instrument are the main drawbacks. However, the RAL would enable the IMF for the first time to provide liquidity immediately in the case of the crisis after pre-qualification. Thus, the instrument fulfills one important request from the academic discussions.