East Germany Rearguard Only investments in education will lead to a further catch-up ...
Miese Luft bei bester Oper
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse? Wird es in Deutschland niemals geben. Die Städte und Gemeinden sollten etwas Besseres anstreben als Gleichmacherei.
Plant-based Bioeconomy in Central Germany – A Mapping of Actors, Industries and Places
Technology Analysis and Strategic Management,
The bioeconomy links industrial and agricultural research and production and is expected to provide growth, particularly in rural areas. However, it is still unclear which companies, research institutes and universities make up the bioeconomy. This makes it difficult to evaluate the policy measures that support the bioeconomy. The aim of this article is to provide an inventory of relevant actors in the three Central German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. First we take an in-depth look at the different sectors, outline the industries involved, note the location and age of the enterprises and examine the distribution of important European industrial activity classification (NACE) codes. Our results underline the fact that established industry classifications are insufficient in identifying the plant-based bioeconomy population. We also question the overly optimistic statements regarding growth potentials in rural areas and employment potentials in general.
The Efficiency of Municipal Service Provision: A Study on the Example of Saxony-Anhalt
Gebiets- und Verwaltungsstrukturen im Umbruch: Beiträge zur Reformdiskussion aus Erfahrungen in Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thüringen,
Against the background of the latest reforms of municipal territories in Sachsen-Anhalt, this paper aims to empirically investigate for this federal state whether the former, very small scale structure of municipal administration could generally be termed “inefficient“. It is of particular importance to determine whether decentralised forms of administration, such as the administrative associations that have been dissolved, are characterised by an efficiency disadvantage in comparison to more strongly centralised standard-municipalities, and whether the former municipalities were too small in terms of their “operational size“.
No justification for the creation of large municipal entities can be derived from the analysis conducted. Owing to the settlement structure and limited possible economies of scale, it is thus not only to be feared that territorially large municipalities in rural areas will fail to significantly improve cost efficiency in the provision of municipal services. Rather, it may also be the case that efficiency will actually decline, as such “giant municipalities“ are often attended by disincentive effects for citizens as well as for policy and administration (e.g. little civil society involvement arising from a lack of identification with the municipality, lack of control of political decision-makers, low levels of preference-justice in administrative action).
Is There a Gap in the Gap? Regional Differences in the Gender Pay Gap
Scottish Journal of Political Economy,
In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial model of monopsonistic competition, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers’ ability to discriminate against women. Utilizing a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in large metropolitan than in rural areas. This regional gap in the gap of roughly 10 percentage points remained surprisingly constant over the entire observation period of 30 years.
Sweden’s Policy for Guaranteeing Service Provision Based on the Example of Jämtland
The northern Swedish Jämtland county is among the most sparsely populated regions in Europe. Due to its rural/peripheral character and a dispersive settlement structure, it is particularly called upon to maintain adequate service provision. An empirical study analysed the provisions of services of general interest for children and elderly persons and adult education in the Country of Jämtland to discover how the various types of services of general interest are organised in this area, what effect the demographic change has on the provision of these services and whether any adjustment processes can be observed. It became apparent that the local players have a clear awareness of the problems related to the demographic change, although to date one cannot speak of explicit adjustment processes.
School Closures and Population Decline in Saxony-Anhalt
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In rural areas school closures are often linked to a decline in population. Do school closures stimulate enhanced emigration? This paper analyses whether family migration is affected by the existence of primary schools. We conduct an empirical study for the East German province Saxony-Anhalt for the period 1991 to 2008. We find that primary schools significantly affect migration behaviour. After school closure municipalities experience a decrease in in-migration. Unexpectedly, controlling for cohort size, unobserved heterogeneity as well as for neighbourhood effects yields higher out-migration prior to school closure. Because the in-migration and the out-migration are of the same magnitude, in sum school closures have no observable impact on net-migration.
Potentials of Innovation in Eastern Germany: High Levels in Urban Centres and Dynamics in Rural Regions
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
Processes of innovation are usually complex, risky, and require a number of inputs, typically research and development (R&D) and a highly qualified workforce. The resulting inventions are the basis for patents that can be further developed into marketable products and real innovations. For example the spending for R&D, the number of highly skilled employees, and the number of patent applications can be seen as relevant indicators for the innovation power of firms. The sum of these measures can identify the innovation potential of whole regions. Because of the interdependence of these variables for the process of innovation, it is self-evident to summarize the measures in one index, which is presented in this article.
There are substantial differences between East German regions in terms of the identified innovation index for the period 2002 to 2006. The overall index indicates a north-south gap of the innovation potential. Bigger cities, such as Jena and Dresden, show up on top places. The view on the dynamics of the regional innovation potential (sub-index dynamics) reveals, however, that some more rural areas are very well off, for example Bernburg, Stollberg, Hoyerswerda, Dahme-Spreewald, Wernigerode and Bad Doberan. This is mainly caused by the innovative sphere of regional centres, but also due to the low base level of some regions.