Macroeconomic Factors and Micro-Level Bank Risk
Bundesbank Discussion Paper 20/2010,
The interplay between banks and the macroeconomy is of key importance for financial and economic stability. We analyze this link using a factor-augmented vector autoregressive model (FAVAR) which extends a standard VAR for the U.S. macroeconomy. The model includes GDP growth, inflation, the Federal Funds rate, house price inflation, and a set of factors summarizing conditions in the banking sector. We use data of more than 1,500 commercial banks from the U.S. call reports to address the following questions. How are macroeconomic shocks transmitted to bank risk and other banking variables? What are the sources of bank heterogeneity, and what explains differences in individual banks’ responses to macroeconomic shocks? Our paper has two main findings: (i) Average bank risk declines, and average bank lending increases following expansionary shocks. (ii) The heterogeneity of banks is characterized by idiosyncratic shocks and the asymmetric transmission of common shocks. Risk of about 1/3 of all banks rises in response to a monetary loosening. The lending response of small, illiquid, and domestic banks is relatively large, and risk of banks with a low degree of capitalization and a high exposure to real estate loans decreases relatively strongly after expansionary monetary policy shocks. Also, lending of larger banks increases less while risk of riskier and domestic banks reacts more in response to house price shocks.
Business Cycle Volatility in Germany
German Economic Review,
Stylized facts suggest that output volatility in OECD countries has declined in recent years. The causes and the nature of this decline have so far been analyzed mainly for the United States. In this paper, we analyze whether structural changes in output volatility in Germany can be detected. We report evidence that output volatility has declined in Germany. It is difficult to answer the question whether this decline in output volatility reflects good economic and monetary policy or merely ‘good luck’.
Structural Vector Autoregressive Models and Monetary Policy Analysis
SFB 373 Discussion Paper 7/2002,
Germany s dependence on the economic situation in the U.S. is less crucial than generally assumed
Wirtschaft im Wandel,
In the context of the recent cyclical downturn in Germany it has often been argued that Germany depends more than other European countries on international economic developments. In this article it is investigated whether empirical support can be found for this proposition. Moreover, it is explored whether this relation has changed over time. For this purpose, vector autoregressive (VAR) models are applied to the output gaps of different economies.
It is shown that in the seventies and eighties, the transmission of business cycle shocks was more pronounced to Germany than to the other EU countries. Since the middle of the nineties, no such differences can be detected. Furthermore, since the middle of the nineties, the effects of shocks from abroad on the German business cycle have been significantly more short-lived than before.