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Editorial

Bei allen Kontroversen über Ursachen und Folgen der Wirtschaftskrise besteht in einem Punkt Einigkeit: Gerade in wirtschaftlich schwierigen Zeiten sollte in Forschung und Entwicklung investiert werden, um im Aufschwung mit Marktneuheiten präsent zu sein. „Was du heute kannst besorgen, das verschiebe nicht auf morgen.“ Man muss kein Ökonom sein, um das zu akzeptieren.

28. April 2010

Authors Jutta Günther

Also in this issue

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Aktuelle Trends: Motive auswärtiger Investoren für die Wahl des Standortes in Ostdeutschland

Andrea Gauselmann

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 4, 2010

Abstract

Das IWH hat mit der dritten Welle der FDI-Mikrodatenbank im Herbst 2009 eine Befragung von ostdeutschen Unternehmen mit ausländischem und/oder westdeutschem multinationalem Investor durchgeführt. Dabei beantworteten die Unternehmen u. a. die Frage nach den strategischen Investitionsmotiven ihres ausländischen und/oder westdeutschen multinationalen Gesellschafters für die Neugründung eines Tochterunternehmens bzw. für die Beteiligung an einem bereits existierenden Unternehmen in den Neuen Bundesländern.

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Immigration to East Germany: Last chance 2011

Alexander Kubis Lutz Schneider

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 4, 2010

Abstract

Due to population ageing and shrinking Germany – particularly East Germany – experiences a demographic constellation causing remarkable economic and social problems. One option to cope with the demography based challenges is immigration. In a historical part the article firstly illustrates the history of immigration in Germany during the 20th century and concludes that substantial immigration initially occurred in the 1950th in the Western part of Germany when the so called “Gastarbeiter” were attracted to the West German labour market. Regions in East Germany, instead, show a rather low share of immigrants – a result of the GDR immigration policy that permitted only a low level of temporary migration. However, prospects of success to stimulate immigration to East Germany seem to be rather limited. Firstly, since 2000 Germany as a whole faces reducing immigration numbers. Secondly, the low immigration experience and density of foreigners’ networks could torpedo existing immigration potentials. The sole opportunity for improving the migration balance seems to be the immigration from Central Eastern European regions. Spatial proximity might compensate for lacking migration incentives and initiate substantial migration flows towards East Germany. Yet, one should not have to high expectation regarding the dimension of immi-gration from Central Eastern Europe. Large parts of the migratory population already moved to other EU member states that implemented the Freedom of Movement for Workers immediately after 2004. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to stay away from every supplementary regulation that might discourage potential labour market migrants from Central East Europe after May 2011.

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Im Fokus: Polen in der globalen Finanz- und Konjunkturkrise – Realwirtschaft trotzt mit IWF-Unterstützung den Finanzmarktturbulenzen

Tobias Knedlik

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 4, 2010

Abstract

Poland’s economy resists turbulences on financial markets Poland has been affected by the global financial crisis. However, developments in Poland deviated considerably from developments in other middle and eastern European countries. Risk premiums, as measured by credit default swaps, increased by less but more suddenly as compared with other countries of the region. The Polish currency crisis started earlier and lasted longer as in other countries of the region. The developments on financial markets did, however, not result in a recession.

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IWH-Industrieumfrage im März 2010: Hochgesteckte Erwartungen beflügeln Geschäftsklima

Cornelia Lang

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 4, 2010

Abstract

Zum Ende des ersten Quartals setzt sich die Erwärmung des Geschäftsklimas in der ostdeutschen Industrie spürbar fort, wie die Ergebnisse der IWH-Industrieumfrage vom März unter rund 300 Unternehmen zeigen. Die Firmen bewerten die aktuellen, vor allem aber die zukünftig erwarteten Geschäfte besser als im Januar. Der Saldo der Geschäftslage legte seitdem vier Punkte zu, der Saldo der Geschäftsaussichten stieg sprunghaft um 18 Punkte.

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Business Networks in the Leipzig, Dresden, Chemnitz and Halle Regions: Do Member Firms Locate in Spatial Proximity?

Gerhard Heimpold

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 4, 2010

Abstract

The business landscape in East Germany mainly consists of small and medium-sized firms. This in mind, business networks may contribute to an improvement of the economic performance of firms which collaborate in business networks. For successful networking a mix of network members being locally concentrated on the one side and of partners from distant regions, especially from abroad, on the other side, is important. In regional economics, this duality is highlighted for two reasons: personal contacts of partners which are located in spatial proximity to each other may ease the transfer of tacit knowledge. The flow of tacit knowledge can be regarded as a factor which enhances innovation processes. However, the inclusion of partners from abroad is important, too. It facilitates access to the most advanced knowledge and technologies worldwide. The academic debate on networking regards a one-sided orientation on the local dimension of networking as risky due to possible lock-in effects. The empirical findings for 93 business networks existing in the regions of Leipzig, Dresden, Chemnitz and Halle, which are located in the southern part of East Germany, reveal a great proportion of network members concentrated locally: On average, this is the case with more than 50% of the network members. 10% of members are located in the other three city regions mentioned. More than one third of firms are located outside, in other German regions, of which around the half in the states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt. A minority of 2% is located abroad. However, for the transfer of externally existing knowledge other network members may be relevant, too. To illustrate: More than four fifths of the networks under investigation include public research units (universities etc.) which usually play an important role when it comes to an inter-regional and international knowledge transfer.

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What are the Long-Term Benefits of the Economic Stimulus Package II for German Local Governments? – The Case of Saxony

Peter Haug

in: Wirtschaft im Wandel, No. 4, 2010

Abstract

This article deals with the question whether the investments subsidized by the economic stimulus package II („Konjunkturpaket II“) do not only have short-term effects on demand but also long-term effects e.g. on local economic growth. As far as the short-term effects are concerned, the case of the German state of Saxony shows – with some delay – a rise in local government´s investments. Hence, the time-lag problem inherent in all governmental spending programmes seems to keep within reasonable limits. Up to now there have been no signs of inflationary price tendencies in the construction sector. According to - for example - the „new“ economic growth theory, one ought to be sceptical about the long-term effects of the projects supported by the programme: Even for genuine public intermediate goods the withdrawal effects of financing have to be weighed against the positive effects on private enterprise sector productivity. Furthermore, the effects on factor prices caused by the investment grants might encourage the excess use of physical capital in public production. This sceptical attitude of the theory is confirmed for Saxony by the fact that primarily public consumption goods (sports and leisure facilities) or educational facilities (kindergartens, primary schools), which are of no direct relevance to the local enterprises, are supported by the programme. Investments in vocational training, research and development play only a minor role at the local government level or are explicitly excluded from the programme. Especially because of the incentives to misallocate public resources it is recommended to rely on unconditional grants in future support programmes. Then the local governments could use the grants for either „investments” in human capital (new [fixed-term contract] hires, qualification) or in physical capital, according to their needs.

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